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Table 3 Characteristics of the patients with acute aortic syndrome

From: Risk factors analysis of acute kidney injury following open thoracic aortic surgery in the patients with or without acute aortic syndrome: a retrospective study

  No AKI AKI Stage P1 Value* P2 Value#
1 2 3
Patient population (n) 56 71 36 24   
Demographic data
 Age (y) 48.0 (16.5) 48.0 (15.0) 48.0 (13.5) 41.0 (8.3) 0.2 0.07
 Sex, male (n) 31 (55.4%) 52 (73.2%) 24 (66.7%) 18 (75.0%) 0.03 0.1
 Height (cm) 170.0 (12.8) 171.0 (7.0) 172.0 (10.5) 170.0 (13.0) 0.4 0.5
 Weight (kg) 71.9 ± 10.2 78.0 ± 12.6 77.1 ± 14.4 77.8 ± 13.4 0.003 0.07
 BMI (kg/m2) 25.5 ± 2.8 25.7 ± 5.6 26.4 ± 3.9 28.2 ± 3.7 0.3 0.2
Medical history
 Diabetes (n) 2 (3.6%) 1 (1.4%) 2 (5.6%) 1 (4.2%) 0.9 0.7
 Hypertension (n) 38 (67.9%) 46 (64.8%) 30 (83.3%) 23 (95.8%) 0.3 0.009
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n) 1 (1.8%) 1 (1.4%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 0.5 0.8
 Peripheral vascular disease (n) 4 (7.1%) 5 (7.0%) 4 (11.1%) 1 (4.2%) 0.9 0.8
 Smoking (n) 17 (30.4%) 21 (29.6%) 13 (36.1%) 9 (37.5%) 0.7 0.8
Preoperative laboratory tests
 Platelet (109/L) 195.5 (106.0) 191.0 (82.0) 191.0 (83.3) 177.0 (65.5) 0.1 0.2
 Lymphocyte (109/L) 1.39 (0.75) 1.24 (0.81) 1.13 (0.59) 1.41 (0.99) 0.01 0.03
 Monocyte (109/L) 0.70 (0.56) 0.67 (0.60) 0.89 (0.63) 0.92 (0.82) 0.03 0.03
 Neutrophil (109/L) 7.39 ± 3.60 7.76 ± 3.41 8.97 ± 3.33 10.52 ± 3.76 0.04 0.001
 Hyperlipidemia (n) 14 (25.0%) 16 (22.5%) 3 (8.3%) 9 (37.5%) 0.6 0.02
 Retinol binding protein (mg/L) 27.6 (24.1) 27.9 (17.1) 21.2 (16.4) 37.3 (25.2) 0.7 0.02
Preoperative renal function
 Dissection involving renal artery (n) 4 (7.1%) 6 (8.5%) 4 (11.1%) 5 (20.8%) 0.4 0.3
 Preoperative SCr (μmol/L) 65.5 (31.0) 75.0 (24.4) 68.5 (36.2) 81.1 (47.9) 0.2 0.2
  > 106 (n) 6 (10.7%) 10 (14.1%) 4 (11.1%) 7 (29.2%) 0.3 0.2
Surgical details
 Involving the aortic arch (n) 50 (89.3%) 66 (93.0%) 35 (97.2%) 24 (100.0%) 0.1 0.2
 Involving the descending aorta (n) 43 (76.8%) 59 (83.1%) 33 (91.7%) 23 (95.8%) 0.06 0.1
 CPB duration (min) 188.0 (38.8) 201.0 (44.0) 222.0 (51.8) 235.0 (60.0) < 0.001 < 0.001
 DHCA or MHCA (n) 48 (85.7%) 65 (91.5%) 34 (94.4%) 23 (95.8%) 0.1 0.4
 Aortic cross-clamp time (min) 94.5 (21.8) 99.0 (31.0) 96.0 (32.5) 110.0 (29.0) 0.02 0.02
 Operation time (h) 7.0 (1.5) 8.0 (1.5) 8.5 (1.9) 9.0 (2.5) < 0.001 < 0.001
Combined surgery
 CABG (n) 1 (1.8%) 2 (2.8%) 0 (0.0%) 3 (12.5%) 0.5 0.04
 Valvular surgery (n) 8 (14.3%) 7 (9.9%) 1 (2.8%) 0 (0.0%) 0.07 0.1
Outcomes
 Renal replacement therapy (n) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 11 (45.8%) 0.03 < 0.001
 Length of ICU stay (day) 5.0 (3.8) 5.0 (2.0) 5.0 (4.0) 12.0 (11.5) 0.02 < 0.001
  > 7 d (n) 17 (30.4%) 16 (22.5%) 13 (36.1%) 22 (91.7%) 0.3 < 0.001
 Intubation time (h) 19.0 (20.0) 24.0 (32.0) 40.5 (75.8) 147.5 (81.0) < 0.001 < 0.001
  > 5 d (n) 4 (7.1%) 4 (5.6%) 5 (13.9%) 17 (70.8%) 0.03 < 0.001
 Redo surgery (n) 2 (3.6%) 2 (2.8%) 5 (13.9%) 6 (25.0%) 0.1 0.002
 In-hospital mortality (n) 1 (1.8%) 1 (1.4%) 0 (0.0%) 7 (29.2%) 0.2 < 0.001
  1. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, SCr Serum Creatinine, CPB Cardiopulmonary Bypass, DHCA Deep Hypothermia and Circulatory Arrest, MHCA Median Hypothermia and Circulatory Arrest, CABG Coronary Artery Bypass Graft
  2. NOTE. The categorical variables in the table are presented by the number of cases (with percentage) and the continuous variables are expressed by the median (with interquartile range) or mean (with standard deviation)
  3. *P1 Value: Compare the patients without AKI and all patients with AKI. P1 values* were the results of unpaired t-test or Mann-Whitney U test for continuous variables, and χ2 test or Fisher’s exact test for categorical variables
  4. #P2 Value: Compare patients within four groups (without AKI and patients with stage 1, 2 and 3 AKI). P2 values# were the results of one-way analysis of variance or KruskalWallis test for continuous variables, and χ2 test or Fisher’s exact test for categorical variables