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Table 1 Characteristics of all cardiac surgery patients in the physical recovery group and non-recovery group

From: Determinants of non-recovery in physical health-related quality of life one year after cardiac surgery: a prospective single Centre observational study

  All (n = 803) R (n = 627) NR (n = 176) p-value
Demographics
 Baseline SF 36 physical domain score 59 [45–73] 56 [42–69] 71 [55–86] < 0.001a
 Body Mass Index (kg/m2) 27 [25–30] 27 [25–30] 27 [25–29] 0.891
Comorbidities
 CVA (%) 2 1.6 1.1 0.658
 Neurologic dysfunction (%) 2 2.1 1.7 0.757
Cardiac status
 Unstable AP (%) 3.5 3.2 4.5 0.387
EuroSCORE II 1.6 [1.1–2.7] 1.5 [1.0–2.6] 1.8 [1.2–3.0] 0.030a
Age (years) 69 [62–75] 69 [62–75] 70 [62–75] 0.127
Gender Male (%) 77 78 73 0.144
Serum Creatinine (umol/l) 84 [73–96] 84 [73–96] 82 [72–95] 0.347
Extracardiac arteriopathy (%) 8 7.5 9.1 0.487
Poor mobility (%) 2.0 2.1 1.7 0.757
Previous cardiac surgery (%) 3.1 3.0 3.4 0.798
Chronic lung disease (%) 12 11.6 10.8 0.755
Active endocarditis (%) 0.7 0.6 1.1 0.498
Critical preoperative state (%) 0.5 0.3 1.1 0.174
Diabetes (%) 18.9 17.5 23.9 0.059
NYHA Class III or IV (%) 54 53.5 55.1 0.692
Angina CCS Class IV (%) 1.9 2.2 0.6 0.150
LVEF (%)     0.254
  Good 77 78 75  
  Moderate 18 17 22  
  Poor 4 4 2  
  Missing 1 1 1  
Recent MI (%) 21 19.6 27.8 0.019a
Pulmonary hypertension (%) 12.6 12.8 11.9 0.654
Urgency (%)     0.231
  Elective 50 51.4 45.5  
  Urgent 48.7 47.5 52.3  
  Emergency 1.3 1.1 2.3  
Weight of intervention (%)     0.456
  Isolated CABG 69.4 68.6 72.2  
  Single Non CABG 13.1 13.1 13.1  
  2 Procedures 15.4 16.4 11.9  
  3 Procedures 2.1 1.9 2.8  
Surgery on thoracic aorta (%) 2.7 3.0 1.7 0.341
Intraoperative characteristics
 Aortic cross-clamp (min) 60 [42–83] 61 [42–83] 59 [44–81] 0.358
 ECC (min) 91 [64–118] 92 [63–119] 86 [64–116] 0.382
Postoperative characteristics
 Infection (%) 5.6 4.5 9.7 0.008a
 First detubation (hour) 3.2 [2.5–4.7] 3.2 [2.5–4.6] 3.2 [2.5–4.9] 0.868
 Re-sternotomy < 30 d (%) 4.1 4.0 4.0 0.765
 ICU days (n) 1.0 [1.0–1.0] 1.0 [1.0–1.0] 1.0 [1.0–1.0] 0.450
 ICU stay extended (%) 5.9 5.9 5.7 0.913
 CVA (%) 0.3 0.2 0.6 0.336
 Readmission ICU (%) 1.0 0.8 1.7 0.285
 Readmission < 30 days after discharge (%) 0.9 0.5 2.3 0.026a
 MI (incl. Perioperative MI) (%) 3.1 3.2 2.8 0.740
 MI (excl. Perioperative MI) (%) 0.9 0.6 1.7 0.142
 PCI < 1 year (%) 2.2 1.3 5.7 < 0.001a
  1. Abbreviations: R recovery group, NR non-recovery group, CVA cerebral vascular accident, AP angina pectoris, EuroSCORE European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation, NYHA New York Heart Association, CCS Class 4 Angina Inability to perform any activity without angina or angina at rest, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, MI Myocardial infarction, CABG coronary artery bypass grafting, ECC extracorporeal circulation, ICU intensive care unit, PCI percutaneous coronary intervention
  2. aIndicates a significant difference across groups. Data are presented as median [interquartile range] unless stated otherwise