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Table 3 Outcomes of c-TTE before and after procedure

From: Patent foramen ovale closure by using transesophageal echocardiography for cryptogenic stroke: single center experience in 132 consecutive patients

classification of shunt size Preoperative 3 months 6 months 12 months
no shunt 0 (0%) 91 (68.9%) 111 (84.1%) 122 (92.4%)
small 0 (0%) 23 (17.4%) 11 (8.3%) 6 (4.5%)
moderate 25 (18.9%) 10 (7.6%) 6 (4.5%) 3 (2.3%)
large 107 (81.1%) 6 (6.1%) 4 (3.0%) 1 (0.8%)
  1. c-TTE Contrast-enhanced transthoracic echocardiography, the presence of 0, 1–10, 11–30, and > 30 microbubbles were classified as no shunt and small, moderate, and large shunts, respectively.