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Table 2 Patients characteristics, medical conditions, and therapies (N = 637)

From: Three-year experience with immediate extubation in pediatric patients after congenital cardiac surgery

VariableOverallExtubation Timepb
(N = 637)IE (N = 338)DE (N = 273)EE (N = 26)
N (%a)N (%a)N (%a)N (%a)
Sex    0.584
 Male349 (54.8)184 (54.4)153 (56.0)12 (46.2) 
 Female285 (44.7)153 (45.3)118 (43.2)14 (53.8) 
Regional Low Perfusion    < 0.001
 Yes92 (14.4)4 (1.2)87 (31.9)1 (3.8) 
 No544 (85.4)334 (98.8)185 (67.8)25 (96.2) 
Deep Hypothermia (Temp < 25)    < 0.001
 Yes150 (23.5)14 (4.1)134 (49.1)2 (7.7) 
 No487 (76.5)324 (95.9)139 (50.9)24 (92.3) 
DHCA    < 0.001
 Yes42 (6.6)2 9 (0.6)40 (14.7)0 (0.0) 
 No595 (93.4)336 (99.4)233 (85.3)26 (100.0) 
Redo sternotomy    < 0.001
 Yes188 (29.5)135 (39.9)45 (16.5)8 (30.8) 
 No446 (70.0)201 (59.5)228 (83.5)17 (65.4) 
Other Benzodiazepines
 No636 (99.9)337 (99.7)273 (100.0)26 (100.0)NA
Other Sedatives    0.004
 Yes45 (7.1)14 (4.1)30 (11.0)1 (3.8) 
 No591 (92.8)324 (95.9)242 (88.6)25 (96.2) 
Lasix    0.004
 Yes563 (88.4)310 (91.7)230 (84.2)23 (88.5) 
 No43 (6.8)13 (3.8)_29 (10.6)1 (3.8) 
Factor VII    NA
 No637 (99.5)338 (100)273 (100.0)26 (100.0) 
Milrinone    0.689
 Yes633 (99.4)335 (99.1)272 (99.6)26 (100.0) 
 No4 (0.6)3 (0.9)1 (0.4)0 (0.0) 
Epinephrine    < 0.001
 Yes155 (24.3)8 (2.4)144 (52.7)3 
 No482 (75.7)330 (97.6)129 (47.3)23 
Vasopresin    0.008
 Yes7 (1.1)0 (0.0)7 (2.6)0 (0.0) 
 No630 (98.9)338 (100.0)266 (97.4)26 (100.0) 
Open chest    < 0.001
 Yes108 (17.0)0 (0.0)108 (39.6)0 (0.0) 
 No529 (83)338 (100.0)165 (60.4)26 (100.0) 
Cardiopulmonary Support    < 0.001
 Yes20 (3.1)0 (0.0)20 (7.3)0 (0.0) 
 No617 (96.9)338 (100.0)253 (92.7)26 (100.0) 
Pulmonary Edema    0.001
 Yes13 (2.0)1 (0.3)12 (4.4)0 (0.0) 
 No624 (98.0)337 (99.7)261 (95.6)26 (100.0) 
Reintubation within 24 h    0.100
 Yes17 (2.7)5 (1.5)11 (4.0)1 (3.8) 
 No617 (96.9)331 (97.9)261 (95.6)25 (96.2) 
Syndrome    < 0.001
 Yes113 (17.7)34 (10.1)74 (27.1)5 (19.2) 
 No519 (81.5)302 (89.3)196 (71.8)21 (80.8) 
Difficult intubation    0.001
 Yes13 (2.0)1 (0.3)120 (0.0) 
 No618 (97.0)333 (98.5)259 (94.9)26 (100.0) 
  1. Note. a%s are column percentages except the first row. The sum of %s of a variable may not be 100 due to missing values
  2. bP values were determined using Fisher’s exact tests for categorical variables and Kruskal Wallis tests for continuous variables. P < 0.05 were in bold character