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Table 5 Patients characteristics, medical conditions, and therapies (N = 350)

From: Three-year experience with immediate extubation in pediatric patients after congenital cardiac surgery

VariableOverall (N = 350)Extubation Timepb
DE (N = 232)IE (N = 103)EE (N = 15)
N (%a)N (%a)N (%a)N (%a)
Sex    0.2433
 Male206 (58.9)136 (58.6)64 (62.1)6 (40.0) 
 Female141 (40.3)94 (40.5)38 (36.9)9 (60.0) 
Regional Low Perfusion    < 0.0001
 Yes88 (25.1)85 (36.6)3 (2.9). 
 No261 (74.6)146 (62.9)100 (97.1)15 (100.0) 
Deep Hypothermia (Temp < 25)    < 0.0001
 Yes127 (36.3)122 (52.6)4 (3.9)1 (6.7) 
 No223 (63.7)110 (47.4)99 (96.1)14 (93.3) 
DHCA    < 0.0001
 Yes42 (12.0)40 (17.2)2 (1.9). 
 No308 (88.0)192 (82.8)101 (98.1)15 (100.0) 
Redo sternotomy    < 0.0001
 Yes66 (18.9)27 (11.6)34 (33.0)5 (33.3) 
 No282 (80.6)205 (88.4)68 (66.0)9 (60.0) 
Other Benzodiasepines    NA
 No350 (100.0)232 (100.0)103 (100.0)15 (100.0) 
Other Sedatives    0.0026
 Yes30 (8.6)28 (12.1)2 (1.9). 
 No319 (91.1)203 (87.5)101 (98.1)15 (100.0) 
Lasix    0.1274
 Yes33 (9.4)27 (11.6)5 (4.9)1 (6.7) 
 No20 (5.7)11 (4.7)7 (6.8)2 (13.3) 
Factor VII    NA
 No350 (100.0)232 (100.0)103 (100.0)15 (100.0) 
Milrinone    0.5613
 Yes348 (99.4)231 (99.6)102 (99.0)15 (100.0) 
 No2 (0.6)1 (0.4)1 (1.0). 
Epinephrine    < 0.0001
 Yes135 (38.6)132 (56.9)1 (1.0)2 (13.3) 
 No215 (61.4)100 (43.1)102 (99.0)13 (86.7) 
Vasopresin    0.3729
 Yes6 (1.7)6 (2.6)   
 No344 (98.3)226 (97.4)103 (100.0)15 (100.0) 
Open chest    < 0.0001
 Yes101 (28.9)101 (43.5)   
 No249 (71.1)131 (56.5)103 (100.0)15 (100.0) 
Cardiopulmonary support    0.0023
 Yes19 (5.4)19 (8.2)   
 No331 (94.6)213 (91.8)103 (100.0)15 (100.0) 
Pulmonary Edema    0.1812
 Yes13 (3.7)12 (5.2)1 (1.0). 
 No337 (96.3)220 (94.8)102 (99.0)15 (100.0) 
Reintubation within 24 h    1.000
 Yes12 (3.4)9 (3.9)3 (2.9). 
 No336 (96.0)222 (95.7)99 (96.1)15 (100.0) 
Syndrome    0.1183
 Yes76 (21.7)58 (25.0)16 (15.5)2 (13.3) 
 No270 (77.1)171 (73.7)86 (83.5)13 (86.7) 
Difficult intubation    0.0883
 Yes10 (2.9)10 (4.3)   
 No336 (96.0)220 (94.8)101 (98.1)15 (100.0) 
  1. Note. a %s are column percentages except the first row. The sum of %s of a variable may not be 100 due to missing values
  2. b P-values are determined using Fisher’s exact tests for categorical and Kruskal Wallis tests for continuous variables. P < 0.05 are in bold character. NAs are due to limited sample size. P < 0.05 are in bold character