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Table 4 Rates of adverse outcomes in patients underwent endoscopic submucosal tunnel dissection

From: Efficacy and safety of endoscopic submucosal tunnel dissection for superficial esophageal neoplastic lesions: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Adverse outcomesPatients, nRate (95%CI), %I2, %
Perioperative
 Perforation92.2 (1.2, 4.3)0
 Bleeding258.7 (5.9, 12.5)0
 Muscular injury11430.5 (26, 35.5)82.4
 Cardiac mucosal laceration66.1 (2.8, 1.3)0
 Pneumothorax14.3 (0.6, 25.2)0
 Emphysema58.8 (3.7, 19.4)0
Postoperative
 ES8518.8 (15.2, 22.9)66.5
 Infection3010.4 (7.4, 14.5)0
 Chest pain410.5 (4.0, 24.9)0
  1. ES esophageal stricture;
  2. I2 indicates percentage of heterogeneity of outcome estimates between included studies