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Table 2 MV pathology and echocardiographic parameters and procedural details

From: Comparison of flexible, open with semi-rigid, closed annuloplasty-rings for mitral valve repair

  OA (n = 528) CA (n = 592)  
  % % p-value
MV pathologies
 Functional 7.4 6.4 0.523
 Degenerative 92.6 93.5  
 Acute endocarditis 2.5 1.9 0.486
 Annulus dilatation 94.9 96.6 0.148
 Annulus calcification 3.6 4.1 0.692
 AML prolapse 19.1 23.6 0.066
 AML flail 5.1 6.8 0.247
 PML prolapse 71.4 68.9 0.365
 PML flail 51.7 46.6 0.089
 Chordae elongation 22.5 28.4 0.025
 Restrictive leaflet 3.0 3.4 0.742
 MV stenosis 0.6 0.3 0.671
 MV insufficiency ≥ grade II 99.6 99.3 0.690
Echocardiographic parameters Median [IQR] Median [IQR]  
 LVEF, % 60.0 [55.0–63.0] 60.0 [55.0–64.0] 0.660
 LVEDD (mm) 55.0 [51.0–59.0] 56.0 [52.0–60.0] 0.003
 LVESD (mm) 35.0 [31.0–39.0] 36.0 [32.0–41.0] 0.001
 Left atrial diameter (mm) 52.0 [46.0–59.0] 55.0 [47.0–63.0] 0.002
 Right atrial diameter (mm) 45.0 [38.0–52.0] 47.0 [39.0–53.0] 0.016
 Mitral opening (mm) 3.7 [3.1–4.6] 4.1 [3.4–4.8] 0.021
 PISA radius (mm) 1.0 [1.0–1.3] 1.2 [1.0–1.4] 0.128
 Vena contracta (mm) 7.0 [5.0–8.0] 7.0 [5.0–7.0] 0.397
Procedural details % %  
Operative approach    < 0.001
 MIC 59.1 71.3  
 CS 40.9 28.7  
Mitral valve repair    
 Triangular resection PML 16.7 15.7 0.664
 Quadr. resection PML 23.3 12.3 < 0.001
 AML reconstruction 12.3 22.6 < 0.001
 PML reconstruction 75.4 72.1 0.218
 Neo chordae AML 8.9 15.2 0.001
 Neo chordae PML 29.9 35.3 0.056
 Cleft plicatur 14.2 28.2 < 0.001
Annuloplasty ring size    < 0.001
 26–28 36.4 15.4  
 30–32 40.4 38.9  
 34–36 20.9 39.1  
 38–40 2.3 6.4  
Concomitant procedures    
 Cryoablation 25.8 28.7 0.276
 LAA closure 26.7 24.0 0.296
 Concomitant TVR 14.8 12.0 0.168
 PFO closure 12.5 6.4 < 0.001
 ASD closure 0.9 1.0 0.910
 Myxom 0.6 0.3 0.671
Times Median [IQR] Median [IQR]  
 Procedure time (min) 185.0 [164.0–215.0] 195.0 [171.0–230.8] < 0.001
 CPB time (min) 116.0 [97.0–140.0] 128.0 [106.3–156.0] < 0.001
 x-clamp time (min) 75.0 [63.0–94.0] 79.0 [64.0–100.0] 0.074
 Length of intubation (h) 10.0 [8.0–14.0] 10.0 [8.0–13.0] 0.905
 Length of ICU (h) 24.0 [22.0–47.0] 24.0 [21.0–48.0] 0.686
 Length of hospital stay (d) 10.0 [8.0–13.0] 10.0 [8.0–13.0] 0.903
  % %  
Rate of successful repair a 88.4 90.5 0.253
MV replacement after repair failure 11.0 9.1 0.299
Conversion to sternotomy 2.6 1.9 0.537
  1. AML anterior mitral valve leaflet, ASD atrial septal defect, CPB cardiopulmonary bypass, CS conventional sternotomy, ICU intensive care unit, IQR interquartile range, LAA left atrial appendage closure, LVEDD left ventricular enddiastolic diameter, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, LVESD left ventricular endsystolic diameter, MIC minimally invasive mitral valve surgery, MV mitral valve, PFO patent foramen ovale, PISA proximal isovelocity surface area, PML posterior mitral valve leaflet, TVR tricuspidal valve repair
  2. a5 patients were removed as they died within 72 h after the intervention (electromechanical decoupling n = 1, right ventricular failure n = 1, low cardiac output n = 2, cardiogenic shock and kidney failure n = 1)