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Table 2 Risk factors for increased (> 320 ml) pleural effusion volume during the first 48 postoperative hours

From: Energy devices safety and impact on video-assisted thoracoscopic lung lobectomy postoperative course: monopolar electrocautery versus ultrasonic dissector

Risk factors Univariable analysis Multivariable analysis
HR (95%CI) p-value HR (95%CI) p-value
Age (continuous) 1.00 (0.97–1.04) 0.89
Gender (male vs female) 2.47 (1.22–4.99) 0.012 1.62 (0.74–3.57) 0.23
BMI (continuous) 0.98 (0.91–1.06) 0.62
Cardiac comorbidities (none vs yes) 1.72 (0.80–3.70) 0.16
Pleural adhesiolysis (none vs yes) 1.22 (0.57–2.61) 0.61
Site of resection (upper/middle vs lower) 3.95 (1.90–8.25) < 0.001 3.10 (1.42–6.78) 0.004
Tumor size (continuous) 0.99 (0.77–1.28) 0.96
Tumor histology (adenocarcinoma vs others) 1.17 (0.57–2.42) 0.67
N° of resected lymph nodes (continuous) 1.04 (0.97–1.12) 0.23
Energy device (ultrasonic vs monopolar) 0.39 (0.20–0.79) 0.008 0.73 (0.33–1.61) 0.43
Surgery duration (continuous) 1.01 (1.01–1.02) < 0.001 1.01 (1.00–1.02) 0.024
Postoperative air-leak> 5 days (none vs yes) 1.44 (0.64–3.25) 0.39
  1. BMI body mass index, CI confidence interval, HR hazard ratio