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Table 3 Risk factors for prolonged (> 4 days) postoperative chest tube duration

From: Energy devices safety and impact on video-assisted thoracoscopic lung lobectomy postoperative course: monopolar electrocautery versus ultrasonic dissector

Risk factors Univariable analysis Multivariable analysis
HR (95%CI) p-value HR (95%CI) p-value
Age (continuous) 1.04 (1.00–1.08) 0.033 1.03 (1.00–1.07) 0.07
Gender (male vs female) 2.67 (1.33–5.34) 0.006 2.47 (1.22–5.01) 0.012
BMI (continuous) 0.94 (0.87–1.02) 0.13
Cardiac comorbidities (none vs yes) 1.14 (0.54–2.41) 0.73
Pleural adhesiolysis (none vs yes) 1.84 (0.85–4.00) 0.12
Site of resection (upper/middle vs lower) 1.63 (0.82–3.26) 0.17
Tumor size (continuous) 1.14 (0.87–1.49) 0.35
Tumor histology (adenocarcinoma vs others) 1.80 (0.86–3.75) 0.12
N° of resected lymph nodes (continuous) 1.00 (0.93–1.07) 0.89
Energy device (ultrasonic vs monopolar) 1.03 (0.53–2.01) 0.93 1.52 (0.71–3.24) 0.28
Surgery duration (continuous) 1.01 (1.00–1.01) 0.039 1.00 (1.00–1.01) 0.22
  1. BMI body mass index, CI confidence interval, HR hazard ratio