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Table 1 Baseline characteristics. All definitions as per NACSA and ICNARC datasets

From: Cardiac surgery outcome during the COVID-19 pandemic: a retrospective review of the early experience in nine UK centres

Variable All Frequency (%)/mean ± SD or Median [IQR] (n = 755) Covid-19 negative Frequency (%)/mean ± SD or Median[IQR] (n = 702) Covid-19 positive Frequency (%)/mean ± SD or Median[IQR] (n = 53) p (Covid-19 positive vs Covid-19 negative)
Demographics
 Age (years/median [IQR]) 66 [57–72] 66 [57–72] 65 [57–72] 0.822
 Female gender 178 (23.6) 174 (24.8) 4 (7.6) 0.004
 Ethnicity
  White 392 (87.1) 362 (86.8) 30 (90.9) 0.046
  Asian 26. (5.8) 26 (6.2) 0 (0.0)  
  Black 12 (2.7) 9. (2.2) 3 (9.1)  
  Other 20. (4.4) 20 (4.8) 0 (0.0)  
Medical history
 Previous MI (yes) 287 (51.9) 266 (52.6) 21 (44.7) 0.301
 Previous PCI (yes) 105 (14.1) 95 (13.8) 10 (18.9) 0.302
 Previous cardiac surgery (yes) 35 (4.7) 31 (4.4) 4 (7.6) 0.301
 Renal function/dialysis 13 (1.9) 11 (1.7) 2 (4.3) 0.215
 History of pulmonary disease 111 (16.1) 101 (15.6) 10 (25.0) 0.122
 History of neurological disease 74 (9.9) 72 (10.4) 2 (3.9) 0.153
 History of neurological dysfunction 18 (2.6) 17 (2.6) 1 (2.1) 1.00
Symptoms
 NHYA class
  I/II 406 (60.3) 380 (60.8) 26 (54.2) 0.365
  III/IV 267 (39.7) 245 (39.2) 22 (45.8)  
 CCSC classification
  0/I/II 480 (63.8) 445 (63.7) 35 (66.0) 0.729
  IIII/IV 272 (36.2) 254 (36.3) 18 (34.0)  
Cardiac risk factors
 Smoking
  Never 326 (44.0) 302 (43.9) 24 (45.3) 0.942
  Ex 309 (41.7) 288 (41.9) 21 (39.6)  
  Current 106 (14.3) 98 (14.2) 8 (15.1)  
 Hypertension 521 (69.8) 481 (69.3) 40 (75.5) 0.346
 Diabetes 197 (26.3) 176 (25.3) 21 (39.6) 0.023
 BMI (kg/m2/median [IQR]) 28.1 [25.0–31.6] 28.1 [25.0–31.6] 27.1 [24.7–31.8] 0.375
Examination and investigation
 LVEF
  Good 514 (69.3) 480 (69.7) 34 (64.2) 0.496
  Moderate/fair 178 (24.0) 163 (23.7) 15 (28.3)  
  Poor 43 (5.8) 40 (5.8) 3 (5.7)  
  Very poor 7 (0.9) 6 (0.9) 1 (1.9)  
 Number of diseased vessels
  0 218 (32.4) 206 (32.9) 12 (26.7) 0.126
  1 66 (9.8) 62 (9.9) 4 (8.9)  
  2 95 (14.1) 83 (13.2) 12 (26.7)  
  3 293 (43.6) 276 (44.0) 17 (37.8)  
 Left main stem disease 144 (21.9) 136 (22.2) 8 (17.8) 0.578
 Creatinine at time of surgery (umol/L) 87 [74–102] 86 [73–101.5] 96 [82.5–115] < 0.0001
 Pre-operative heart rhythm
  Sinus rhythm 643 (86.1) 598 (86.2) 45 (84.9) 0.888
  Atrial fibrillation/flutter 80 (10.7) 73 (10.5) 7 (13.2)  
  Complete Heart Block/pacing 17 (2.3) 16 (2.3) 1 (1.9)  
  Ventricular tachycardiac/fibrillation 2 (0.3) 2 (0.3) 0 (0.0)  
  Other abnormal 5 (0.7) 5 (0.7) 0 (0.0)  
Pre-operative risk assessment
 EuroSCORE (median [IQR]) 2.3 [1.4–5.2] 2.3 [1.4–4.9] 3.9 [1.6–6.5] 0.015
Intra-operative details
 Operative priority
  Elective 298 (39.8) 291 (41.8) 7 (13.7) < 0.001
  Urgent 391 (52.3) 353 (50.7) 38 (74.5)  
  Emergency 52 (7.0) 47 (6.7) 5 (9.8)  
  Salvage 7 (0.9) 6 (0.9) 1 (2.0)  
 Operation performed
  CABG 318 (46.0) 306 (47.1) 12 (29.3) 0.004
  CABG+valve (any) 68 (9.8) 57 (8.8) 11 (26.8)  
  Valve only (any) 181 (26.2) 173 (26.6) 8 (19.5)  
  Major aortic 103 (14.9) 94 (14.5) 9 (22.0)  
  Other 21 (3.0) 20 (3.1) 1 (2.4)  
 Cardiopulmonary bypass used (Yes) 677 (95.1) 625 (94.8) 52 (98.1) 0.506
 Cardiopulmonary bypass time (minutes) 104 [77–138] 102 [75–137] 116 [87–153] 0.020
 Aortic cross clamp time (minutes) 72 [52–101] 70 [51–100] 84 [62–119] 0.024
Outcome
 Length of ventilation (days) 2 [1–2] 1.5 [1–2] 2 [1–2.5] 0.666
 Length of ICU stay (days) 2 [1–4] 2 [1–4] 2 [1–3.5] 0.767
 Return to theatre 34 (4.9) 33 (5.1) 1 (2.1) 0.723
 Deep sternal wound infection 1 (0.2) 1 (0.2) 0 (0.0) 1.000
 New neurological dysfunction 20 (3.0) 19 (3.0) 1 (2.1) 1.000
 New haemofiltration/ dialysis 25 (3.7) 23 (3.6) 2 (4.3) 0.687
 Post-operative length of stay (days) 6 [5–10] 6 [5–9] 11 [6–15] 0.0001
 In-hospital mortality 37 (5.0) 24 (3.5) 13 (24.5) < 0.0001