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Table 3 Patient characteristics and procedural's complications

From: Clinical and echocardiographic trends in percutaneous balloon mitral valvuloplasty

Patient characteristics Complications
(N = 200)
Nocomplications (N = 217) P-value Age-adjusted OR
OR P-value
Age (Mean ± SD years)
(Median; range)
57.5 ± 10.2
(57; 29–84)
55.0 ± 11.7
(55; 23–88)
.09 1.02
Sex    .12   .09  
 Female 166 (49.7) 168 (50.3)   1.47   1.54
 Male 33 (40.2) 49 (59.8)   1.00   1.00
    Obesity (BMI > 30) 91 (45.7) 88 (40.7) .31 1.23 .48 1.15
 Smoking 70 (35.2) 83 (39.2) .40 0.84 .32 0.82
 Hypertension 100 (50.8) 85 (39.5) .02 1.58 .07 1.46
 Dyslipidemia 95 (48.5) 94 (43.9) .36 1.20 .56 1.12
 Diabetes mellitus 55 (28.1) 54 (25.2) .52 1.16 .82 1.05
 Chronic kidney failure 35 (17.9) 37 (17.5) .92 1.03 .95 0.98
 Ischemic heart disease 56 (28.9) 66 (30.7) .69 0.92 .20 0.74
    CABG 8 (4.1) 15 (7.0) .21 0.57 .20 0.56
 Atrial fibrillation 101 (50.5) 110 (50.9) .93 0.98 .49 0.87
 Stroke 28 (14.3) 29 (13.6) .83 1.06 .95 1.02
 Endocarditis 4 (2.1) 6 (2.9) .61 0.72 .60 0.71
Decade    .83   .09  
 1990–1999 73 (44.2) 92 (55.8)   1.00   1.00
 2000–2009 98 (53.8) 84 (46.2) .07 1.47 .06 1.51
 2010–2019 29 (41.1) 41 (58.9) .69 0.89 .75 0.91
Wilkins score, mean ± SD (median, range)  9.0 ± 1.5
(9; 5–12)
8.8 ± 1.7
(9; 4–13)
.12 1.10 .14 1.10
Wilkins by score   Rate   .37    
  < 8 35 (42.7) 47 (57.3)   1.00   1.00
  ≥ 8 37 (42.0) 51 (58.0) .31 1.29 .29 1.02
  ≥ 9 53 (54.1) 45 (45.9) .08 1.42 10 1.40
 10 41 (52.6) 37 (47.4) .54 1.13 .52 1.14
 11+ 34 (47.9) 37 (52.1) .34 1.25 .34 1.25
Calcification of leaflets    .72   .76  
 1 41 (47.7) 45 (52.3) 1.00 1.00
 2 89 (47.1) 100 (52.9) .92 0.98 .89 0.97
 3 56 (51.9) 52 (48.1) .62 1.16 .66 1.14
 4 14 (41.2) 20 (58.8) .49 0.75 .50 0.76
Calcification of subvalvular apparatus    .80   .79  
 1 33 (45.8) 39 (54.2) 1.00 1.00
 2 93 (47.0) 105 (53.0 .84 1.06 .72 1.11
 3 63 (51.2) 60 (48.8) .40 1.28 .34 1.33
 4 11 (45.8) 13 (54.2) >.99 1.00 .86 1.09
Leaflets Mobility    .06   .11  
 1 28 (39.4) 43 (60.6) 1.00 1.00
 2 117 (50.6) 114 (49.4) .14 1.50 .18 1.46
 3 44 (44.4) 56 (55.6) .62 1.17 .79 1.09
 4 11 (73.3) 4 (26.7) .03 4.03 .04 3.83
Leaflets Thickening    .28   0.30  
 1 27 (39.7) 41 (60.3) 1.00 1.00
 2 85 (47.0) 96 (53.0) .31 1.34 .29 1.37
 3 81 (53.6) 70 (46.4) .07 1.71 .07 1.73
 4 7 (41.2) 10 (58.8) .95 1.04 .78 1.16
 LVEF 58.0 ± 4.7
(60; 45–83)
58.9 ± 4.2
(60; 40–72)
.03   0.11 0.96
  1. LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction