Skip to main content

Table 4 Patient characteristics and technically successful procedure 

From: Clinical and echocardiographic trends in percutaneous balloon mitral valvuloplasty

Patient characteristics Successful
(N = 389)
Not successful (N = 27) P-value Age-adjusted
OR P-value OR
Age (Mean ± SD years)
(Median; range)
56.4 ± 11.0
(56; 23–88)
52.8 ± 10.0
(52; 36–76)
.10 1.03
Sex    .40   .38  
 Female 313 (94.0) 20 (6.0)   1.46   
 Male 75 (91.5) 7 (8.5)   1.00   
    Obesity (BMI > 30)    .88   .70  
 Yes 166 (93.3) 12 (6.7)   0.94   
 No 221 (93.6) 15 (6.4)   1.00   
 Smoking 144 (94.1) 9 (5.9) .77 1.13 .85  
    Hypertension    .052   .02  
 Yes 168 (90.8) 17 (7.2)   0.46   0.38
 No 221 (95.6) 10 (4.4)   1.00   1.00
 Dyslipidemia 177 (93.7) 12 (6.3) .85 1.08 .93  
 Diabetes mellitus 100 (92.6) 8 (7.4) .60 0.80 .41  
 Chronic kidney failure 67 (93.1) 5 (6.9) .91 0.94 .85  
 Ischemic heart disease 111 (91.0) 11 (9.0) .20 0.60 .05  
 CABG 21 (91.3) 2 (8.7) .69 0.74 .69  
 Atrial fibrillation 194 (91.9) 17 (8.1) .19 0.59 .10  
 Stroke 52 (92.9) 4 (7.1) .86 0.91 .79  
 Endocarditis 9 (90.0) 1 (10.0) .67 0.64 .67  
Decade    .01   .02  
 1990–1999 159 (97.0) 5 (3.0)   1.00   1.00
 2000–2009 170 (93.4) 12 (6.6) .32 0.45 .18 0.48
    2010–2019 60 (85.7) 10 (14.3) .007 0.19 .005 0.20
Wilkins score, mean ± SD (median, range)  8.8 ± 1.5
(9; 5–13)
10.0 ± 2.4
(9; 4–12)
.001 0.60 .001 0.61
Category Rate      
    < 8 76 (93.8) 5 (6.2) .90 1.00 .89 1.00
     ≥8 313 (93.4) 22 (6.6)   0.94   0.93
  < 9 163 (96.4) 6 (3.6) .04 1.00 .05 1.00
  ≥ 9 226 (91.5) 21 (8.5)   0.40   0.39
  < 10 257 (96.3) 10 (3.7) .002 1.00 .004 1.00
  ≥ 10 132 (88.6) 17 (11.4)   0.30   0.30
Calcification of leaflets    .25   .28  
 1 82 (95.3) 4 (4.7) 1.00 1.00
 2 176 (93.6) 12 (6.4) .57 0.72 .54 0.70
 3 102 (94.4) 6 (5.6) .79 0.83 .75 0.81
 4 29 (85.3) 5 (14.7) .08 0.28 .08 0.29
Calcification of subvalvular apparatus    .001   .001  
 1 68 (95.8) 3 (4.2) 1.00 1.00
 2 189 (95.5) 9 (4.5) .90 0.93 .96 0.97
 3 117 (95.1) 6 (4.9) .82 0.86 .85 0.87
 4 15 (62.5) 9 (37.5) .001 0.07 .001 0.08
Leaflets Mobility    .55   .48  
 1 68 (95.8) 3 (4.2) 1.00 1.00
 2 216 (93.9) 14 (6.1) .59 0.68 .52 0.66
 3 92 (92.0) 8 (8.0) .34 0.51 .26 0.47
 4 13 (86.7) 2 (13.3) .20 0.29 .17 0.27
Leaflets Thickening    .30   .40  
 1 65 (95.6) 3 (4.4) 1.00 1.00
 2 168 (93.3) 12 (6.7) .51 0.65 .53 0.66
 3 142 (94.0) 9 (6.0) .66 0.73 .65 0.74
 4 14 (82.4) 3 (17.6) .08 0.22 .11 0.25
ECHO characteristics
 LVEF 58.5 ± 4.5
(60; 50–60)
58.2 ± 3.7
(60; 50–60)
.79 1.01 .71 1.02
 Pressure gradients over MV 14.73 ± 6.24
(14; 3–60)
12.74 ± 7.29
(12; 5–36)
.02 1.06 .06 1.09
 MVA 1.59 ± 0.25
(1.6; 0.7–2.5)
1.38 ± 0.05
(1.4; 1.3–1.5)
.001 115.5 .001 109.4
  1. LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, MVA Mitral valve area