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Table 3 Type and frequency of complications

From: Uniportal VATS pleural biopsy in the diagnosis of exudative pleural effusion: awake or intubated?

Complications VATS (n = 113) AVATS (n = 41)
Death within 30 days 0 0
Loculated effusion 5 2
Prolonged air leakage and expansion defect 3 2
Self-limiting subcutaneous emphysema 2 0
Empyema and broncho-pleural fistula 2 0
Cardiac arrhythmia 2 0
Long pleural drainage 1 0
  1. VATS Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery, AVATS Awake video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery