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Table 1 Main features of studies included

From: Risk factors of postoperative delirium after cardiac surgery: a meta-analysis

Study Included Design Setting Sample Size Incidence Diagnosis Standard Risk Factors Identified
Burkhart 2010 [19] Retrospective analysis University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland 113 30% CAM Max CRP, Fentanyl intraoperatively, Duration of mechanical ventilation
Cai 2020 [20] Prospective cohort study Zhongshan Hospital, Shanghai, China 635 11.5% CAM-ICU NT-proBNP, NYHA functional classification III or IV, LVEF
Itagaki 2020 [21] Retrospective analysis The Cardiovascular Institute, Tokyo, Japan 89 28.1% ICDSC Age, MCI (MoCA< 26 points), Frailty (J-CHS3 points)
Katznelson 2009 [22] Prospective cohort study Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, Canada 1059 11.5% CAM-ICU Red blood cell transfusion, (>  5 units), Perioperative intra-aortic balloon pump support, Preoperative depression, Preoperative creatinine > 150 mM, Age ≥ 60 years, Combined CABG and valvular surgery. Preoperative administration of statins was found protective
Kazmierski 2010 [23] Prospective cohort study WAM University Hospital in Lodz, Lodz, Poland 563 16.3% DSM-IV Age ≥ 65 years, MMSE < 25, Major depression, Anemia, AF, Intubation > 24 h, pO2 < 60 mmHg
Kotfis 2019 [24] Prospective cohort study Hospital of Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland 3178 15.8% DSM-V Age, NYHA class III or IV, HbA1c, Creatinine at admission, Extracardiac arteriopathy
Krzych 2013 [25] Prospective observational study Upper Silesia Medical Center, Katowice, Poland 5781 4.1% DSM-IV Postoperative cerebral ischemia, blood transfusion, Age > 65 years, Carotid artery stenosis, Emergency surgery, Fasting glucose level, ΔpO2, ΔHematocrit. Hypertension was found protective
Norkiene 2013 [26] Prospective cohort study Vilnius University Hospital, Vilnius, Lithuania 87 13.30% ICDSC ICU stay, Duration of controlled mechanical ventilation
Ogawa 2018 [27] Prospective cohort study Kobe University Hospital, Kobe, Japan 313 14.6% ICDSC 6MWD, ICU stay
Sabol 2015 [28] Prospective observational study VUSCH, Kosice, Slovakia 250 20.8% CAM-ICU Age, EuroSCORE II, CPB time, ACC time, Sufentanil dose, Benzodiazepine administration, CABG
Sauër 2017 [29] Retrospective analysis University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands 184 12.5% CAM-ICU Trailmaking test A
Smulter 2013 [30] Prospective observational study Umeå University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden 142 54.9% DSM-IV NRS pain, Diabetes, Oxygen saturation peripheral, Combined surgical procedure, Volume load (blood excluded), Ventilator time, Sodium concentration in ICU
Tully 2010 [31] Prospective cohort study Flinders Medical Centre, Adelaide, Australia 158 31% Delirium Symptom Interview (DSI) based on DSM-IV ACC time, hemoglobin, Major depressive disorder, Psychotropic/anti-cholinergic drug use
Wesselink 2015 [32] Prospective observational study University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands 734 13% CAM and CAM-ICU MAP< 60 mmHg
  1. 6MWD 6-min walking distance, ACC aortic cross-clamping, AF atrial fibrillation, CABG coronary artery bypass grafting, CAM Confusion Assessment Method, CPB cardiopulmonary bypass, HbA1c glycated hemoglobin, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, DSM Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, ICU intensive care unit, ICDSC Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist, MAP mean arterial pressure, Max CRP maximum value of C-reactive protein postoperatively, MCI mild cognitive impairment, MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination, MoCA Montreal Cognitive Assessment, NRS Numeric Rating Scale, NT-proBNP N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide, NYHA New York Heart Association, pO2 arterial oxygen partial pressure. Δ: intraoperative fluctuation (max-min)