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Table 1 Clinicopathological, operative and biochemical variables associated with AL

From: Predictive value of postoperative C-reactive protein-to-albumin ratio in anastomotic leakage after esophagectomy

Variable All (n = 273) Non-AL (n = 239) AL (n = 34) p value
Gender     0.053
 Male 214 (78.4) 183 (76.6) 31 (91.2)  
 Female 59 (21.6) 56 (23.4) 3 (8.8)  
Age (years) 64.4 ± 8.8 64.3 ± 8.9 64.8 ± 8.4 0.853
BMI (kg/m2) 22.94 ± 3.18 22.99 ± 3.25 22.56 ± 2.67 0.491
Preoperative chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy     0.198
 No 228 (83.5) 197 (82.4) 31 (91.2)  
 Yes 45 (16.5) 42 (17.6) 3 (8.8)  
Diabetes     0.720
 No 253 (92.7) 222 (92.9) 31 (91.2)  
 Yes 20 (7.3) 17 (7.1) 3 (8.8)  
Smoking     0.302
 No 135 (50.5) 121 (50.6) 14 (41.2)  
 Yes 138 (49.5) 118 (49.4) 20 (58.8)  
Thoracic operation history     0.592
 No 271 (99.3) 237 (99.2) 34 (100)  
 Yes 2 (0.7) 2 (0.8) 0 (0)  
Pulmonary diseases     0.271
 No 270 (98.9) 237 (99.2) 33 (97.1)  
 Yes 3 (1.1) 2 (0.8) 1 (2.9)  
ASA score     0.014
 1 187 (68.5) 157 (65.7) 30 (88.2)  
 2 72 (26.4) 70 (29.3) 2 (5.9)  
 3 14 (5.1) 12 (5.0) 2 (5.9)  
Tumor location     0.336
 Upper 20 (7.3) 19 (7.9) 1 (2.9)  
 Middle 164 (60.1) 140 (58.6) 24 (70.6)  
 Lower 89 (32.6) 80 (33.5) 9 (26.5)  
Histology     0.370
 SCC 256 (93.8) 224 (93.7) 32 (94.1)  
 AC 2 (0.7) 2 (0.8) 0 (0)  
 ASC 2 (0.7) 1 (0.4) 1 (2.9)  
 Other a 13 (4.8) 12 (5.0) 1 (2.9)  
Differentiation     0.883
 Well 71 (26.0) 61 (25.5) 10 (29.4)  
 Moderate 158 (57.9) 139 (58.2) 19 (55.9)  
 Poor 44 (16.1) 39 (16.3) 5 (14.7)  
Pathological Stage     0.199
 I 104 (38.1) 90 (37.6) 14 (41.2)  
 II 62 (22.7) 59 (24.7) 3 (8.8)  
 III 101 (37.0) 86 (36.0) 15 (44.1)  
 IV 6 (2.2) 4 (1.7) 2 (5.9)  
Operation type     0.006
 Open operation 137 (50.2) 128 (53.6) 9 (26.5)  
 VATS 97 (35.5) 77 (32.2) 20 (58.8)  
 RATS 39 (14.3) 34 (14.2) 5 (14.7)  
Duration of operation (hours) 3.96 ± 1.18 3.83 ± 1.15 4.88 ± 0.97 < 0.001
Nutritional pathway     0.217
 Jejunostomy tube 31 (11.4) 25 (10.5) 6 (17.6)  
 Nasojejunal tube 242 (88.6) 214 (89.5) 28 (82.4)  
Postoperative WBC (109/L) 11.14 ± 3.36 11.19 ± 3.33 10.80 ± 3.62 0.671
Postoperative lymphocyte (109/L) 0.69 ± 0.35 0.70 ± 0.36 0.61 ± 0.29 0.194
Postoperative monocyte (109/L) 0.61 ± 0.25 0.60 ± 0.24 0.61 ± 0.32 0.871
Postoperative neutrocyte (109/L) 9.77 ± 3.19 9.81 ± 3.18 9.51 ± 3.30 0.791
Postoperative RBC (1012/L) 3.89 ± 0.60 3.91 ± 0.58 3.75 ± 0.67 0.273
Postoperative albumin (g/L) 33.75 ± 3.69 34.11 ± 3.50 31.2 ± 0 <  0.001
Postoperative Hb (g/L) 118.5 ± 19.0 119.3 ± 19.0 112.5 ± 17.7 0.015
Postoperative platelet (109/L) 179.08 ± 56.87 178.91 ± 55.37 180.29 ± 67.43 0.703
Postoperative CRP (mg/L) 71.19 ± 63.71 56.45 ± 47.70 174.82 ± 66.35 <  0.001
Postoperative glucose (mmol/L) 8.42 ± 2.94 8.50 ± 3.03 7.86 ± 2.13 0.313
Postoperative CRP/ALB ratio 2.19 ± 2.12 1.69 ± 1.50 5.74 ± 2.43 < 0.001
Postoperative NLR 18.74 ± 13.02 18.41 ± 12.64 21.04 ± 15.42 0.482
Postoperative PLR 320.31 ± 186.99 312.87 ± 176.75 372.62 ± 244.30 0.239
Postoperative LMR 1.42 ± 1.31 1.42 ± 1.32 1.36 ± 1.23 0.442
Postoperative PNI 68.29 ± 18.48 69.21 ± 18.74 61.81 ± 15.27 0.034
  1. Data are presented as n (%) or mean ± standard deviation (SD)
  2. AL anastomotic leakage, BMI body mass index, ASA score American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, SCC squamous cell carcinoma, AC adenocarcinoma, ASC adenosquamous carcinoma, VATS video-assisted thoracic surgery, RATS robot-assisted thoracic surgery, WBC white blood cell, RBC red blood cell, Hb hemoglobin, CRP C-reactive protein, CRP/ALB ratio C-reactive protein to albumin ratio, NLR neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, PLR platelet to lymphocyte ratio, LMR lymphocyte to monocyte ratio, PNI prognostic nutritional index
  3. a Carcinoid tumors (n = 9), sarcomas (n = 2) and lymphomas (n = 2)