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Table 1 Indications for cardiac surgery in patients with IE

From: Comparison of outcome between blood culture positive and negative infective endocarditis patients undergoing cardiac surgery

Heart failure due to valvular dysfunction 5.80%
Prevention of embolism 3.86%
Heart failure due to valvular dysfunction and prevention of embolism 41.06%
Heart failure due to valvular dysfunction and prevention of embolism and uncontrolled infection 28.02%
Heart failure due to valvular dysfunction and uncontrolled infection 20.29%
Uncontrolled infection and prevention of embolism 0.97%