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Table 1 Study characteristics

From: Lidocaine for postoperative pain after cardiac surgery: a systematic review

Author Study design Participants Intervention vs. control Timeline Primary outcome Secondary outcome Follow-up period Drop outs Risk of bias
Insler, 2009 [23] Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial n = 100; MS for CABG; mean age 63 years; 72% male IV lidocaine infusion (n = 44) vs. placebo substitute (n = 45) Anesthesia induction until either ICU dismissal or PO hour 48 VAS pain score at PO hours 4, 8, 16, 24, 48, 96 ICU hemodynamics; MI; extubation time; sedation score; PO fentanyl, midazolam, propranolol doses; ICU and hospital length of stay ICU dismissal or PO hour 48 11 Some concerns
Kang, 2014 [24] Randomized placebo-controlled trial n = 45; MS for CABG, mean age 68 years; 67% male Topical lidocaine 2% gel on chest tubes (n = 22) vs. normal saline placebo (n = 23) Single application with intraoperative insertion of chest tubes VAS pain scores at extubation and POD 1, 2, 3, 7 Cumulative PCA fentanyl PCA; number of PCA button pushes; chest tube worse site of pain POD 7 3 Low
Mashaqi, 2018 [25] Randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial n = 40; MS for CABG; age and sex not reported Intrapleural 12 mL 2% lidocaine (n = 20) vs. 12 mL 0.9% saline solution placebo (n = 20) Single injection on POD 1 and 2; administered via left-sided double-lumen chest tube NRS pain scores on POD 1 and POD 2 FEV1 before and after injections on POD 1 and POD 2 POD 2 0 High
  1. CABG coronary artery bypass graft, MS median sternotomy, IV intravenous, ICU intensive care unit, MI myocardial infarction, POD postoperative day, PO postoperative, VAS visual analog scale, NRS numerical analog scale, PCA patient controlled analgesia, FEV1 forced expiratory volume at one second