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Table 2 Mean values and corresponding standard deviation for all measurements of bubble counts (bubbles/μL) and bubble volumes, expressed as percentages for readability (μL/μL*100). Values are shown for total injected bubbles, brain branch and non-brain region (arms + legs), and are normalized by the total injected volumes of bubbles. During ECC Bubbles injection, information on non-brain counts was not available, meanwhile during Heart Bubbles injection, total injected counts were not recorded. The same is valid for volumes values, but missing information was calculated due to conservation of mass

From: Effect of cannulation site on emboli travel during cardiac surgery

BUBBLE COUNT [bubbles/μL]
Injection Site ECC Bubbles Heart Bubbles
Bubbles Size S M L SUM S M L SUM
Aortic Cannulation
 Injected 0.38 ± 0.31 0.54 ± 0.47 0.23 ± 0.11 1.15 N/A N/A N/A N/A
 Brain 0.12 ± 0.07 0.16 ± 0.09 0.1 ± 0.07 0.38 0.41 ± 0.25 0.43 ± 0.17 0.16 ± 0.02 1
 Non-Brain N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.83 ± 0.58 0.63 ± 0.13 0.24 ± 0.03 1.7
Axillary Cannulation
 Injected 0.27 ± 0.08 0.42 ± 0.17 0.23 ± 0.08 0.92 N/A N/A N/A N/A
 Brain 0.15 ± 0.06 0.23 ± 0.09 0.06 ± 0.02 0.39 0.2 ± 0.24 0.23 ± 0.27 0.05 ± 0.03 0.48
 Non-Brain N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.63 ± 0.69 0.43 ± 0.39 0.13 ± 0.03 1.19
Femoral Cannulation
 Injected 0.09 ± 0.05 0.15 ± 0.04 0.14 ± 0.03 0.38 N/A N/A N/A N/A
 Brain 0.03 ± 0.01 0.08 ± 0.01 0.05 ± 0.01 0.16 0.84 ± 1.36 0.84 ± 1.42 0.08 ± 0.04 1.76
 Non-Brain N/A N/A N/A N/A 2.58 ± 4.63 1.14 ± 1.34 0.24 ± 0.13 3.96
BUBBLE VOLUME DISTRIBUTION [μL/μL*100]
Injection Site ECC Bubbles Heart Bubbles
Bubbles Size S M L SUM S M L SUM
Aortic Cannulation
 Injected 0.6 ± 0.47 8.36 ± 7.29 91.0 ± 7.7 100% 1.86 ± 1.26 17.65 ± 3.24 80.49 ± 3.79 100%
 Brain 0.18 ± 0.10 2.62 ± 1.63 40.62 ± 53.57 43.42% 0.66 ± 0.44 7.01 ± 2.32 42.40 ± 8.42 50.07%
 Non-Brain 0.42 ± 0.39 5.74 ± 6.15 50.42 ± 59.29 56.58% 1.20 ± 0.84 10.63 ± 2.74 38.09 ± 8.82 49.92%
Axillary Cannulation
 Injected 0.42 ± 0.14 6.4 ± 2.2 93.18 ± 2.34 100% 1.27 ± 1.37 8.4 ± 7.62 90.34 ± 8.96 100%
 Brain 0.23 ± 0.09 3.63 ± 1.33 14.89 ± 8.59 18.75% 0.32 ± 0.37 3.32 ± 3.77 14.97 ± 6.62 18.61%
 Non-Brain 0.19 ± 0.09 2.77 ± 2.85 78.29 ± 8.05 81.25% 0.95 ± 1.0 5.08 ± 3.95 75.37 ± 13.32 81.4%
Femoral Cannulation
 Injected 0.13 ± 0.06 2.56 ± 0.47 97.31 ± 0.51 100% 4.94 ± 8.73 24.83 ± 25.78 70.22 ± 34.3 99.9%
 Brain 0.04 ± 0.01 1.43 ± 0.2 15.56 ± 4.95 17.03% 1.25 ± 2.12 10.65 ± 15.92 16.73 ± 12.98 28.63%
 Non-Brain 0.08 ± 0.05 1.13 ± 0.39 81.76 ± 5.21 82.97% 3.69 ± 6.61 14.18 ± 10.38 53.49 ± 31.23 71.36%