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Table 4 Multivariable cox regression for overall survival and lung cancer-specific survival in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer ≤1 cm

From: Surgical choice for patients with stage I non-small-cell lung cancer ≤2 cm: an analysis from surveillance, epidemiology, and end results database

Variables Overall survival Lung cancer-specific survival
Univariate analysis Multivariable Cox regression Univariate analysis Multivariable Cox regression
HR (95%) p HR (95%) p HR (95%) p HR (95%) p
Age
 ≤ 60 y 1.000 (reference)   1.000 (reference)   1.000 (reference)   1.000 (reference)  
 60–70 y 1.569 (1.286 to 1.913) < 0.001 1.420 (1.161 to 1.737) < 0.001 1.224 (0.949 to 1.578) 0.905 1.139 (0.880 to 1.474) 0.325
 > 70 y 2.853(2.285 to 3.562) < 0.001 2.442 (1.943 to 3.068) < 0.001 1.984 (1.476 to 2.669) < 0.001 1.753 (1.291 to 2.380) < 0.001
Gender
 Male 1.000 (reference)   1.000 (reference)   1.000 (reference)   1.000 (reference)  
 Female 0.666 (0.577 to 0.767) < 0.001 0.732 (0.633 to 0.846) < 0.001 0.707 (0.580 to 0.862) < 0.001 0.773 (0.632 to 0.945) 0.013
Race
 White 1.000 (reference)   1.000 (reference)   1.000 (reference)   1.000 (reference)  
 Black 1.053 (0.811 to 1.367) 0.702 1.134 (0.871 to 1.475) 0.352 1.055 (0.736 to 1.513) 0.772 1.077 (0.749 to 1.548) 0.692
 Hispanic 0.471 (0.273 to 0.813) 0.007 0.471 (0.272 to 0.814) 0.007 0.558 (0.278 to 1.120) 0.102 0.556 (0.276 to 1.120) 0.102
 Asian 0.418 (0.251 to 0.696) 0.001 0.454 (0.272 to 0.756) 0.003 0.373 (0.177 to 0.785) 0.010 0.407 (0.193 to 0.858) 0.019
 Other 0.607 (0.197 to 1.878) 0.389 0.732 (0.236 to 2.269) 0.591 NA NA NA NA
Side
 LEFT 1.000 (reference)   1.000 (reference)   1.000 (reference)   1.000 (reference)  
 RIGHT 0.964 (0.834 to 1.114) 0.618 NA NA 0.967 (0.790 to 1.182) 0.742 NA NA
Location
 Upper 1.000 (reference)   1.000 (reference)   1.000 (reference)   1.000 (reference)  
 Middle 0.689 (0.490 to 0.969) 0.033 0.798 (0.566 to 1.126) 0.201 0.686 (0.427 to 1.103) 0.121 0.786 (0.487 to 1.269) 0.786
 Lower 0.918 (0.781 to 1.079) 0.299 0.965 (0.820 to 1.135) 0.667 0.923 (0.738 to 1.155) 0.486 0.979 (0.781 to 1.228) 0.857
Grade
 Grade I 1.000 (reference)   1.000 (reference)   1.000 (reference)   1.000 (reference)  
 Grade II 1.903 (1.548 to 2.338) < 0.001 1.505 (1.211 to 1.870) < 0.001 2.423 (1.786 to 3.287) < 0.001 2.036 (1.483 to 2.795) < 0.001
 Grade III 2.373 (1.904 to 2.958) < 0.001 1.640 (1.291 to 2.084) < 0.001 2.859 (2.064 to 3.959) < 0.001 2.089 (1.474 to 2.960) < 0.001
 Grade IV 1.704 (0.965 to 3.010) 0.068 1.000 (0.524 to 1.907) 0.999 1.886 (0.814 to 4.369) 0.141 0.948 (0.374 to 2.407) 0.912
 Unknow 1.896 (1.459 to 2.464) < 0.001 1.806 (1.379 to 2.365) < 0.001 2.584 (1.784 to 3.744) < 0.001 2.524 (1.723 to 3.697) < 0.001
Histology
 sq 1.000 (reference)   1.000 (reference)   1.000 (reference)   1.000 (reference)  
 ad 0.598 (0.535 to 0.670) < 0.001 0.751 (0.628 to 0.898) 0.002 0.777 (0.606 to 0.996) 0.048 0.994 (0.767 to 1.287) 0.963
 BAC 0.350 (0.269 to 0.451) < 0.001 0.479 (0.357 to 0.641) < 0.001 0.378 (0.254 to 0.560) < 0.001 0.530 (0.344 to 0.815) 0.004
 Large cell 0.947 (0.643 to 1.395) 0.786 1.110 (0.718 to 1.718) 0.640 1.462 (0.892 to 2.395) 0.134 1.793 (1.038 to 3.097) 0.037
 Other 0.820 (0.637 to 1.056) 0.127 0.858 (0.660 to 1.117) 0.258 1.046 (0.731 to 1.496) 0.806 1.083 (0.746 to 1.571) 0.677
Surgical type
 Lobectomy 1.000 (reference)   1.000 (reference)   1.000 (reference)   1.000 (reference)  
 Segmentectomy 1.046 (0.745 to 1.469) 0.795 0.817 (0.565 to 1.180) 0.286 1.121 (0.710 to 1.770) 0.625 0.891 (0.540 to 1.469) 0.652
 Wedge resection 1.593 (1.375 to 1.846) < 0.001 1.255 (1.022 to 1.540) 0.031 1.587 (1.293 to 1.947) < 0.001 1.292 (0.972 to 1.718) 0.079
Lymph node
 LND 1.000 (reference)   1.000 (reference)   1.000 (reference)   1.000 (reference)  
 Without LND 1.260 (1.170 to 1.356) < 0.001 1.143 (1.030 to 1.268) 0.012 1.590 (1.296 to 1.953) < 0.001 1.134 (0.982 to 1.310) 0.088
  1. Abbreviations: sq. Squamous cell carcinoma, ad Adenocarcinoma, BAC Bronchoalveolar carcinoma, LND Lymph node dissection