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Table 5 Multivariable cox regression for overall survival and lung cancer-specific survival in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer ≤1 cm

From: Surgical choice for patients with stage I non-small-cell lung cancer ≤2 cm: an analysis from surveillance, epidemiology, and end results database

Variables Overall survival Lung cancer-specific survival
Univariate analysis Multivariable cox regression Univariate analysis Multivariable cox regression
HR (95%) p HR (95%) p HR (95%) p HR (95%) p
Age
 ≤ 60 y 1.000 (reference)   1.000 (reference)   1.000 (reference)   1.000 (reference)  
 60–70 y 1.622 (1.480 to 1.779) < 0.001 1.531 (1.395 to 1.680) < 0.001 1.408 (1.252 to 1.584) < 0.001 1.350 (1.199 to 1.520) < 0.001
 > 70y 2.793 (2.534 to 3.080) < 0.001 2.566 (2.323 to 2.835) < 0.001 1.957 (1.720 to 2.228) < 0.001 1.836 (1.609 to 2.096) < 0.001
Gender
 Male 1.000 (reference)   1.000 (reference)   1.000 (reference)   1.000 (reference)  
 Female 0.683 (0.643 to 0.725) < 0.001 0.722 (0.679 to 0.767) < 0.001 0.731 (0.674 to 0.795) < 0.001 0.772 (0.710 to 0.839) < 0.001
Race
 White 1.000 (reference)   1.000 (reference)   1.000 (reference)   1.000 (reference)  
 Black 0.990 (0.881 to 1.111) 0.860 1.069 (0.951 to 1.200) 0.266 0.988 (0.844 to 1.157) 0.882 1.030 (0.879 to 1.207) 0.718
 Hispanic 0.798 (0.676 to 0.942) 0.081 0.917 (0.776 to 1.082) 0.307 0.803 (0.640 to 1.007) 0.058 0.898 (0.715 to 1.127) 0.355
 Asian 0.598 (0.508 to 0.703) < 0.001 0.682 (0.580 to 0.803) 0.002 0.609 (0.488 to 0.760) < 0.001 0.695 (0.557 to 0.869) 0.001
 Other 0.760 (0.473 to 1.222) 0.260 0.843 (0.524 to 1.355) 0.482 0.751 (0.392 to 1.442) 0.393 0.820 (0.427 to 1.574) 0.552
Side
 LEFT 1.000 (reference)   1.000 (reference)   1.000 (reference)   1.000 (reference)  
 RIGHT 0.978 (0.920 to 1.040) 0.486 NA NA 0.980 (0.902 to 1.067) 0.649 NA NA
Location
 Upper 1.000 (reference)   1.000 (reference)   1.000 (reference)   1.000 (reference)  
 Middle 0.846 (0.738 to 0.970) 0.017 0.905 (0.789 to 1.038) 0.155 0.822 (0.681 to 0.993) 0.043 0.892 (0.738 to 1.079) 0.241
 Lower 0.986 (0.922 to 1.054) 0.683 1.019 (0.953 to 1.089) 0.587 0.968 (0.883 to 1.061) 0.488 1.017 (0.927 to 1.114) 0.726
Grade
 Grade I 1.000 (reference)   1.000 (reference)   1.000 (reference)   1.000 (reference)  
 Grade II 1.790 (1.630 to 1.967) < 0.001 1.505 (1.364 to 1.661) < 0.001 1.987 (1.737 to 2.273) < 0.001 1.753 (1.524 to 2.015) < 0.001
 Grade III 2.334 (2.115 to 2.574) < 0.001 1.793 (1.613 to 1.992) < 0.001 2.705 (2.353 to 3.109) < 0.001 2.215 (1.909 to 2.569) < 0.001
 Grade IV 2.435 (1.913 to 3.099) < 0.001 1.447 (1.105 to 1.896) 0.008 2.709 (1.939 to 3.785) < 0.001 1.695 (1.170 to 2.456) 0.006
 Unknow 1.744 (1.520 to 2.001) < 0.001 1.623 (1.411 to 1.868) < 0.001 2.042 (1.688 to 2.470) < 0.001 1.938 (1.596 to 3.353) < 0.001
Histology
 sq 1.000 (reference)   1.000 (reference)   1.000 (reference)   1.000 (reference)  
 ad 0.590 (0.550 to 0.633) < 0.001 0.775 (0.720 to 0.834) < 0.001 0.731 (0.661 to 0.807) < 0.001 0.953 (0.860 to 1.057) 0.364
 BAC 0.353 (0.313 to 0.398) < 0.001 0.514 (0.451 to 0.586) < 0.001 0.399 (0.336 to 0.474) < 0.001 0.613 (0.509 to 0.738) < 0.001
 Large cell 1.118 (0.954 to 1.309) 0.170 1.197 (1.003 to 1.428) 0.048 1.370 (1.105 to 1.696) 0.004 1.403 (1.107 to 1.780) 0.005
 Other 0.736 (0.657 to 0.825) < 0.001 0.854 (0.760 to 0.960) 0.009 0.876 (0.748 to 1.026) 0.102 0.984 (0.837 to 1.157) 0.847
Surgical type
 Lobectomy 1.000 (reference)   1.000 (reference)   1.000 (reference)   1.000 (reference)  
 segmentectomy 1.290 (1.129 to 1.476) < 0.001 1.094 (0.945 to 1.267) 0.231 1.205 (0.998 to 1.456) 0.054 1.051 (0.856 to 1.290) 0.636
 Wedge resection 1.832 (1.710 to 1.962) < 0.001 1.499 (1.371 to 1.640) < 0.001 1.825 (1.663 to 2.004) < 0.001 1.543 (1.365 to 1.744) < 0.001
Lymph node
 LND 1.000 (reference)   1.000 (reference)   1.000 (reference)   1.000 (reference)  
 Without LND 1.213 (1.177 to 1.251) < 0.001 1.066 (1.024 to 1.110) 0.002 1.212 (1.163 to 1.263) < 0.001 1.072 (1.014 to 1.133) 0.015
  1. Abbreviations: sq. Squamous cell carcinoma, ad Adenocarcinoma, BAC Bronchoalveolar carcinoma, LND Lymph node dissection