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Table 1 Characteristics of the overall population and propensity matched patients

From: Minimally invasive or sternotomy approach in mitral valve surgery: a propensity-matched comparison

  Overall Matched Patients
  MINI STERNOTOMY p-value MINI STERNOTOMY p-value
Variable n = 189 n = 336   n = 158 n = 225  
Age (years) 64.1 ± 9.1 65.6 ± 10.4 0.02 64.8 ± 8.9 65.4 ± 10.9 0.16
Gender (male) 85 (45%) 145 (43%) 0.71 64 (41%) 95 (42%) 0.75
BMI (kg/m2) 27.9 ± 4.4 29.0 ± 6.1 0.11 28.0 ± 4.5 29.3 ± 6.2 0.07
Previous MI 12 (6%) 35 (10%) 0.15 8 (5%) 20 (9%) 0.17
Diabetes mellitus 23 (12%) 76 (23%) 0.004 22 (14%) 39 (17%) 0.40
Arterial hypertension 136 (72%) 239 (71%) 0.23 119 (75%) 161 (72%) 0.35
COPD 23 (12%) 48 (14%) 0.60 20 (13%) 25 (11%) 0.75
Hyperlipidaemia 95 (50%) 179 (53%) 0.53 83 (53%) 117 (52%) 1.00
Atrial fibrillation 77 (41%) 148 (44%) 0.52 71 (45%) 99 (44%) 0.92
Peripheral arterial disease 1 (1%) 12 (4%) 0.04 1 (1%) 1 (0%) 1.00
Cerebrovascular disease 16 (8%) 24 (7%) 0.61 16 (10%) 15 (7%) 0.26
Smoking 49 (26%) 101 (30%) 0.37 39 (25%) 54 (24%) 0.90
LVEF (%) 58.2 ± 11.3 57.3 ± 12.0 0.10 58.9 ± 10.4 58.1 ± 11.0 0.15
Pulmonary hypertension 21 (11%) 57 (17%) 0.08 21 (13%) 31 (14%) 1.00
EuroScore II (%) 2.4 ± 2.2 4.1 ± 5.2 <  0.001 2.6 ± 2.3 2.9 ± 2.2 0.06
Creatinine concentration (μmol/l) 83.0 ± 18.6 99.4 ± 59.9 <  0.001 83.7 ± 19.2 87.5 ± 21.2 0.10
NYHA class
 I + II 126 (67%) 144 (43%) <  0.001 95 (60%) 122 (54%) 0.30
 III + IV 63 (33%) 180 (54%) <  0.001 63 (40%) 103 (46%) 0.30
Mitral valve stenosis 2 (1%) 27 (8%) <  0.001 2 (1%) 6 (3%) 0.48
Mitral valve regurgitation 187 (99%) 309 (92%) <  0.001 156 (99%) 219 (97%) 0.48
Mitral valve regurgitation grade
 1 + 2 1 (1%) 15 (4%) 0.01 1 (1%) 5 (2%) 0.41
 3 + 4 188 (99%) 315 (94%) <  0.001 157 (99%) 217 (96%) 0.09
Mitral valve pathology
 Degenerative 166 (88%) 281 (84%) 0.20 140 (89%) 203 (90%) 0.62
 Rheumatic 1 (1%) 14 (4%) 0.01 1 (1%) 3 (1%) 0.65
 Ischemic 11 (6%) 23 (7%) 0.72 7 (4%) 11 (5%) 1.00
 Secondary 11 (6%) 13 (4%) 0.38 10 (6%) 8 (4%) 0.23
Acute operation 0 (0%) 16 (5%) <  0.001 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 1.00
  1. BMI body mass index; COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; LVEF left ventricle ejection fraction; Pulmonary hypertension –systolic pulmonary artery pressure ≥ 55 mmHg