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Table 4 Intraoperative Data

From: The additional use of methylene blue has a decatecholaminisation effect on cardiac vasoplegic syndrome after cardiac surgery

  MB Group
n = 311
Non-MB Group
n = 202
p-value
Emergency Operation 137 [44] 60 [30] 0.002
Surgery Type
 CABG 135 [46] 111 [55] n.s.
 Valve 54 [18] 29 [14]  
 CABG+VALVE 47 [17] 19 [9]  
 Aorta 5 [2] 1 [1]  
 VAD 10 [3] 1 [1] n.s.
 Others 53 [18] 42 [21]  
With CBP 273 [88] 172 [85] n.s.
Previous Non-Cardiac & Cardiac Surgery 98 [32] 32[16] 0.001
CBP Time [min] 119 ± 68 102 ± 62 0.006
Cross-Clamp Time [min] 77 ± 49 64 ± 43 0.003
Hypothermia 24 [8] 8 [4] n.s.
CPR 51 [17] 26 [13] n.s.
ECMO 20 [7] 3 [2] 0.022
ECMO [min] 39 ± 51 0 n.s.
IABP 30 [10] 7 [4] 0.035
MAP [mmHg]
 Pre Induction 87 ± 18 90 ± 15 n.s.
 Post Induction 78 ± 13 80 ± 11 n.s.
 Postoperative in OR 68 ± 15 69 ± 16 n.s.
Heart Rate [1/min]
 Pre Induction 79 ± 21 78 ± 17 n.s.
 Post Induction 74 ± 21 71 ± 17 n.s.
 Postoperative in OR 98 ± 20 96 ± 19 n.s.
Diuresis [mL] 812 ± 608 881 ± 627 n.s.
Norepinephrine [mg/h]
 After CBP 0.49 ± 0.8 0.33 ± 0.4 0.004
 Before CPB 0.57 ± 0.5 0.72 ± 0.9 0.032
Dobutamine [mg/h]
 After CBP 4.8 ± 7.5 3.6 ± 6.3 n.s.
 Before CPB 6.9 ± 9.3 8.3 ± 9.1 n.s.
Epinephrine [mg/h]
 After CBP 0.11 ± 0.5 0.03 ± 0.2 0.007
 Before CPB 0.31 ± 0.3 0.21 ± 0.3 0.001
Vasopressin [I.E./h]
 After CBP 0.03 ± 0.5 0.01 ± 0.1 n.s.
 Before CPB 0.31 ± 2.1 0.07 ± 0.4 n.s.
Hydrocortisone
 Bolus [mg] 73 ± 44 96 ± 15 n.s.
 Continuous [mg/h] 13 ± 21 65 ± 60 n.s.
Blood Products
 Erythrocytes 2.2 ± 2.6 1.4 ± 2.1 0.001
 Fresh frozen plasma 2.1 ± 3.9 1.0 ± 2.5 0.001
 Thrombocytes 1.0 ± 1.4 0.7 ± 1.0 0.002
 Cellsaver-blood [ml] 389 ± 742 289 ± 443 n.s.
 PPSB [I.E.] 1088 ± 1867 873 ± 1547 n.s.
 Minirin [μg] 9.7 ± 36.6 5.9 ± 11.3 n.s.
Fluids [mL]
 Crystalloids 1286 ± 959 1886 ± 1955 0.001
 Colloids 449 ± 458 386 ± 445 n.s.
  1. CAPG Coronary artery bypass grafting, VAD Ventricular assist device, CPB Cardiopulmonary bypass, CPR Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, ECMO Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, CPB Cardiopulmonary bypass, IABP Intra-aortic balloon pump, MAP Mean arterial pressure, OR Operation room. All data are presented as number [%] or mean +/− SD. n.s.: not significant