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Table 1 Preoperative and operative details of consecutive patients who underwent TAR with FET technique

From: Risk factor analysis of clinical outcomes of total aortic arch replacement and frozen elephant trunk with aortic balloon occlusion

Variables ABO
(n = 130)
Conventional
(n = 230)
Statistics P
Preoperative and operative details (contribution to EuroSCORE)
Age (years‡) 51 (42–58) 47 (40–55) 1.720* 0.087
Female (+1) 31 (23.9) 57 (24.8) 0.039* 0.843
COPD history (+1) 6 (4.6) 2 (0.9) 5.363* 0.021
Peripheral arterial disease history (+2) 11 (8.5) 13 (5.7) 1.054* 0.503
Stroke history (+2) 11 (8.5) 23 (10.0) 0.230* 0.632
Cardiac surgery history (+3) 2 (1.5) 15 (6.5) 4.584* 0.032
Preoperative Scr (μmol/L) 83.1 (71.7–105.8) 90.0 (71.7–114.3) Non-normally distributed 0.532
Scr > 200 μmol/L (+2) 1 (0.8) 6 (2.6) 1.474* 0.225
LVEF (%||) 51 (47–55.3) 50.5 (46–54) Non-normally distributed 0.187
Myocardial infarction in 90 days (+ 2) 9 (6.9) 11 (4.8) 0.725* 0.394
Pulmonary hypertension (+ 2) 1 (0.8) 3 (1.3) 0.216* 0.642
Emergency, operated on the day or next day upon admission (+ 2) 93 (71.5) 174 (75.7) 0.734* 0.392
Concomitant coronary artery bypass graft (+ 2) 18 (13.9) 30 (13.0) 0.046* 0.830
EuroSCORE 2 (3–4) 2 (3–4) Non-normally distributed 0.485
Other preoperative details
Weight (kg) 75 (67.5–86) 75 (67.1–85) Non-normally distributed 0.839
Height (cm) 172 (169–176) 172 (167–176) Non-normally distributed 0.738
Heavy smoker 74 (56.9) 130 (56.5) 0.005* 0.941
CAD history 13 (10.0) 24 (10.4) 0.017* 0.896
Aortic pathology    0.424* 0.515
Aneurysm 7 (5.4) 9 (3.9)   
Aortic dissection 123 (94.6) 221 (96.1)
Thoracic endovascular aortic repair history 10 (7.7) 13 (5.7) 0.578* 0.447
Aortic dissection involvement
Root 53 (43.1) 93 (42.1) 0.033* 0.856
Ascending 105 (85.4) 208 (94.1) 7.381* 0.007
Arch 123 (100) 221 (100) / /
Total/ proximal 116 (94.3) 217 (98.2) 3.845* 0.050
Left subclavian artery or distal 7 (5.7) 4 (1.8)
Thoracic descending 115 (93.5) 207 (93.7) 0.004* 0.951
Abdominal 99 (80.5) 196 (88.7) 4.350* 0.037
Iliac 73 (59.4) 135 (61.1) 0.100* 0.752
Classification based on chronicity
Acute(< 7 d) 87 (66.9) 168 (73.0) 1.506* 0.220
Subacute(7–30 d) 23 (17.7) 20 (8.7) 6.392* 0.011
Chronic(> 30 d) 20 (15.4) 42 (18.3) 0.482* 0.488
Operative details
Operation time (min) 379 (337–430) 395 (330–463) Non-normally distributed 0.445
CPB time (min) 175 (148–201) 162 (141–209) Non-normally distributed 0.152
Clamp (min) 114 (94–143) 109 (89–131) Non-normally distributed 0.034
CA time (min) 5 (3–7) 17 (14–20) Non-normally distributed  < 0.001
Require secondary CPB 5 (3.85) 29 (12.61) 7.457* 0.006
Temperature change(°C)
Nasal temperature during CA 27.6 (27.1–28.0) 25.4 (24.9–26.0) Non-normally distributed  < 0.001
Rectal temperature during CA 28.7 (28–29.7) 28.1 (26.7–30.1) Non-normally distributed 0.015
  1. Data are presented as median (Q1–Q3) or n (%)
  2. COPD Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, EuroSCORE European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation, LVEF left ventricular ejection fractions, Scr serum creatinine, CA circulatory arrest, CPB cardiopulmonary bypass
  3. *t value;†: χ2 value; ‡EuroSCORE + 1 for 60 years and + 1 for every 5 years beyond 60; §EuroSCORE + 2 for preoperative serum creatinine more than 200 μmol/L; ||EuroSCORE + 1 for between 30 and 50% and + 3 for less than 30%