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Table 2 Postoperative details and early clinical outcomes of consecutive patients who underwent TAR with FET technique

From: Risk factor analysis of clinical outcomes of total aortic arch replacement and frozen elephant trunk with aortic balloon occlusion

Variables ABO (n = 130) Conventional (n = 230) Statistics† P
30-day mortality 6 (4.6) 18 (7.8) 1.376 0.241
Conscious revival (h) 8.1 (4.9–13.8) 11.8 (7.8–19.0) non-normally distributed  < 0.001
Delayed conscious revival (> 12 h) 38 (29.2) 103 (44.8) 8.431 0.004
Mechanical ventilation (h) 18.7 (13.3–36.9) 21.5 (13.5–47.0) non-normally distributed 0.217
Prolonged mechanical ventilation (> 72 h) 11 (8.5) 42 (18.3) 6.535 0.012
ICU stay (h) 90.5 (59.3–132.8) 86.4 (58.7–134.2) non-normally distributed 0.380
Postoperative in-hospital stay (d) 11 (8–14) 11 (9–14) non-normally distributed 0.321
Postoperative serum creatinine (day 1) 107.4 (85.8–137.8) 168.2 (69.7–202.8) non-normally distributed 0.002
AKI (serum creatinine > 200 μmol/L) 30 (23.1) 82 (35.7) 6.128 0.013
Oliguria or anuria 10 (7.7) 22 (9.1) 0.360 0.549
Continuous renal replacement therapy 10 (7.7) 23 (10.0) 0.531 0.466
Stroke 4 (3.1) 9 (3.9) 0.167 0.683
Temporal paraplegia 3 (2.3) 10 (4.4) 0.993 0.319
Delirium 4 (3.1) 15 (6.3) 1.972 0.160
Acute hepatic injury 16 (12.3) 64 (27.8) 11.572 0.001
Sub-acute hepatic injury 55 (42.3) 85 (37.0) 1.001 0.317
Platelet rebound‡ 90 (69.3) 190 (82.6) 8.600 0.003
Severe lung infection 3 (2.3) 18 (7.8) 4.604 0.032
Total chest tube drainage of 0–3 postoperative day (mL)§ 1040 (720–1260) 1140 (860–1460) non-normally distributed 0.002
Percentage of > 1500 mL 18 (13.9) 53 (23.0) 4.438 0.035
 Operation day 380 (280–480) 460 (360–685) non-normally distributed 0.760
 Postoperative day 1 250 (200–330) 330 (240–450) non-normally distributed 0.001
 Postoperative day 2 170 (110–240) 225 (160–310) non-normally distributed  < 0.001
 Postoperative day 3 160 (80–230) 190 (135–270) non-normally distributed  < 0.001
Cost of medical bill (USD) 25,463 (21,889–29,627) 24,914 (22,077–29,378) non-normally distributed 0.298
 Less than 20,000 10 (7.7) 24 (10.4) 0.903 0.637
 20,000 to 30,000 89 (68.5) 157 (68.3)
 More than 30,000 31 (23.9) 49 (21.3)
Blood product transfusion (expressed as percentage of usage and average quantity among used)
Red blood cell transfusion (U) 7.8 ± 6.7
83 (63.9)
8.5 ± 8.7
174 (75.7)
non-normally distributed
(5.668)
0.581
(0.017)
 Intraoperative 4.8 ± 3.1
55 (42.3)
5.9 ± 4.9
117 (50.9)
non-normally distributed
(2.440)
0.259
(0.118)
 During CPB 4.4 ± 1.9
43 (33.1)
4.8 ± 2.6
78 (33.9)
non-normally distributed
(0.026)
0.612
(0.872)
 After CPB 3.6 ± 3.2
21 (16.2)
4.9 ± 4.3
65 (28.3)
non-normally distributed
(6.696)
0.056
(0.010)
 Postoperative 5.9 ± 4.8
65 (50.0)
6.0 ± 7.1
132 (57.4)
non-normally distributed
(1.831)
0.741
(0.176)
Plasma transfusion (ml) 770.7 ± 549.0
82 (63.1)
997.2 ± 856.6
141 (61.3)
non-normally distributed
(0.111)
0.011
(0.739)
 Intraoperative 550.7 ± 392.0
71 (54.6)
675.8 ± 369.2
124 (53.9)
non-normally distributed
(0.017)
0.001
(0.898)
 Postoperative 573.8 ± 406.7
42 (32.3)
778.0 ± 798.3
73 (31.7)
non-normally distributed
(0.012)
0.153
(0.912)
Platelets transfusion (U) 1.5 ± 0.9
102 (78.6)
1.7 ± 1.5
189 (82.2)
non-normally distributed
(0.739)
0.338
(0.390)
 Intraoperative 1.2 ± 0.5
93 (71.5)
1.2 ± 0.9
172 (74.8)
non-normally distributed
(0.450)
0.734
(0.502)
 Postoperative 2.2 ± 1.2
18 (13.9)
2.2 ± 2.0
51 (22.2)
non-normally distributed
(3.718)
0.304
(0.054)
  1. ABO Aortic balloon occlusion, TAR total aortic arch replacement, FET frozen elephant trunk, CPB cardiopulmonary bypass, USD United States dollar, AKI acute kidney injury
  2. *Data are expressed as median (Q1–Q3) or n(%), except for the quantity of blood transfusion, which is presented as mean ± standard deviation
  3. Statistical values for normally distributed continuous variable is t value, for categorical variables is χ2 value, or is noted as non-normally distributed continuous variable
  4. Platelet rebound stands for the last re-examination of platelet count during in hospital stay was higher than the preoperative level
  5. §Total chest tube drainage of 0–3 postoperative day (per 100 mL) was considered in the multivariable analysis for postoperative bleeding as it is a direct factor for blood loss