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Table 3 Comparison of intraoperative and postoperative characteristics according to the severity of TR in patients

From: The occurrence and risk factors of bradycardia after the Maze procedure in patients with atrial fibrillation and tricuspid regurgitation

Characteristics Mild TR group (n = 50) Moderate-to-severe TR group (n = 32) P value
Intraoperative index
Operation time (min) 255 (196.5–306.25) 237 (196.5–262.25) 0.309
Aortic cross-clamp time (min) 77 (56.75–93.5) 75.5 (56.75–88) 0.887
CPB (min) 112.44 ± 38.59 118.22 ± 32.59 0.485
Postoperative index
Ventilator assistance time (d) 1 (1–2) 1 (0.95–1) 0.103
Detention time in ICU (d) 2 (2–4) 2 (2–3) 0.256
Length of stay (d) 20 (15–23) 21 (16.75–25.5) 0.181
Cerebral apoplexy (%) 0 (0) 1 (3) 0.209
Secondary tracheal intubation (%) 0 (0) 1 (3) 0.209
Infector (%) 3 (6) 1 (3) 0.555
Deliration (%) 1 (2) 2 (6) 0.317
1 h after MP
Bradyarrhythmia (%) 7 (14) 13 (41) 0.006
SB (%) 5 (10) 11 (34) 0.007
AVB (%) 1 (2) 0 (0) 0.421
AF (%) 19 (38) 8 (25) 0.222
Before discharge
Bradyarrhythmia (%) 7 (14) 20 (63) 0.000
SB (%) 5 (10) 20 (63) 0.000
AVB (%) 2 (4) 0 (0) 0.252
AF (%) 12 (24) 8 (25) 0.918
Pacemaker implanted (%) 1 (2) 3 (9) 0.130
Amiodarone (g) 5.6 (4.2–7.35) 5.5 (4.18–7.65) 0.977
Hospital deaths (%) 0 (0) 2 (6) 0.073
Concomitant surgery
Concomitant TV surgery (%) 34 (68) 30 (94) 0.006
With or without TV Without TV (n1 = 16)
With TV (n1 = 34)
Without TV (n2 = 3)
With TV (n2 = 29)
P1 = 0.544
P2 = 0.159
SB (%) 1 (6) 4 (12) 3 (100) 17 (59)  
Concomitant AV surgery (%) 11 (22) 4 (13) 0.278
Concomitant LA volume reduction (%) 16 (32) 12 (38) 0.608
  1. Data were expressed as mean ± SD unless otherwise indicated
  2. CPB cardiopulmonary bypass, MP maze procedure, AVB atrioventricular block, LA left atrial, SB sinus bradycardia, P1 comparison of incidence of SB without TV surgery and with TV surgery in mild TR group, P2 comparison of incidence of SB without TV surgery and with TV surgery in moderate-to-severe TR group