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Table 1 Porcine models utilizing cardiopulmonary bypass

From: The susceptibility of the aortic root: porcine aortic rupture testing under cardiopulmonary bypass

Author Purpose Methodology Findings
Angelos et al. [4] To determine organ blood flow changes in a swine model using CPB to achieve return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) Swine model of 10 pigs placed on CBP following VF cardiac arrest Low flow cardiopulmonary bypass model produces reproducible high resuscitation rates and ROSC
Bufalari et al. [5] To determine the most effective practice of left pneumonectomy Swine model of 11 pigs undergoing left pneumonectomy The most straightforward procedure required careful dissection of the pulmonary ligament, pulmonary veins, pulmonary artery, and finally bronchus
Eckhouse et al. [6] To establish a reproducible model of aortic dilatation reproducing what happens in Thoracic abdominal aneurysm’s (TAA) development Descending TAA’s were induced in 7 pigs using collagenase and crystalline and tissue analysed Tissue demonstrates aortic dilatation, aortic medial degeneration, and alterations in MMP/TIMP abundance consistent with TAA formation
Kofidis et al. [7] To determine the feasibility of transapical cardioscopic surgery in a pig model Transapical access to the ventricle was obtained in 5 pigs with right mini thoracotomy for central cannulation and CPB Transapical approach allowed for good exposure and adequate surgical field for mitral valve, and aortic valve access, and atrial ablation and intra-aortic procedures
Lundemeon et al. [8] To determine the effects of pulsed and non-pulsed CPB on microvascular fluid exchange A total of 16 pigs were randomized to pulsatile (n = 8) or non-pulsatile (n = 8) CPB No significant differences in the fluid extravasation rates were present between pulsed and non-pulsed cardiopulmonary bypass perfusion
Mariscal et al. [9] To describe a surgical technique for swine lung transplantation and postoperative management 3 days postoperatively Involved development of a protocol based on donor surgery, recipient surgery and postoperative care and sacrifice This survival model can be used by lung researchers to assess development of primary graft dysfunction (PGD) and to test therapeutic strategies targeting PGD
Mickelson et al. [10] To develop an alternative to canine models in testing for cardiopulmonary bypass research 15 pigs were divided into three groups to determine the optimum conditions during CPB to avoid complications of fluid shifts, metabolic acidosis, and hemoglobinuria Determined that optimum blood flow rate for cardiopulmonary bypass in swine is in the range of 175–200 ml/kg min. Hyperosmolar priming solution is beneficial for CPB in swine to reduce fluid shifts, metabolic acidosis, and hemoglobinuria
Nicols et al. [11] To determine the effect of changing FiO2-concentration on SvO2 in a swine model on CPB 8 mixed-gender swine were placed on CPB with an experimental and control group measuring percentage change in blood flow and oxygen delivery Results suggest that decreased blood flow adjusting for increased SvO2 associated with high PaO2 did not result in significant reduction in adequacy of perfusion markers for organs studied
Oizumi et al. [1] Development of a swine model for anatomical thoracoscopic lung segmentectomy training 33 pigs were used over a period of 5 years to train operators on segmentectomy via a hybrid (8) or thoracoscopic (23) approach. 3 pigs were converted to thoracotomy due to hemorrhage Live swine model was considered a good choice for training surgeons on how to perform a minimally invasive lung segmentectomy in humans
Thalmann et al. [13] Evaluation of several hybrid approaches for pulmonary valve replacement in a swine model 13 pigs were used using 4 different thoracotomy methods for valve implantation, and 5 cases used median sternotomy Achieved implantation of 12/13 stented valves of which 41% were in the optimal position and 16% had paravalvular leakage. Lower partial sternotomy provided the best deemed approach