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Table 1 Preoperative characteristics

From: Surgical outcomes associated with partial upper sternotomy in obese aortic disease patients

  Total Non-obese P1 Obese P2 P3 P4
FMS PUS FMS PUS
Patients (n) 493 180 (36.5) 155 (31.5) 88 (17.8) 70 (14.2)   
Age (years) 53.9 ± 12.5 54.4 ± 10.4 52.7 ± 9.8 0.126 55.9 ± 10.8 54.0 ± 11.5 0.287 0.275 0.384
BMI (kg/m2) 26.99 ± 5.48 25.4 ± 3.9 24.8 ± 4.0 0.166 30.11 ± 3.04 30.56 ± 3.09 0.360 < 0.001 < 0.001
Male, n (%) 393 (79.7) 149 (82.8) 119 (76.8) 0.171 70 (79.5) 55 (78.6) 0.881 0.520 0.766
Chronic diseases          
 Diabetes, n (%) 81 (16.4) 28 (15.6) 25 (16.1) 0.886 16 (18.2) 12 (17.1) 0.865 0.586 0.849
 Hypertension, n (%) 402 (81.5) 144 (80.0) 126 (81.3) 0.766 79 (89.8) 63 (90.0) 0.962 0.044 0.099
 Hyperlipidemia, n (%) 85 (17.2) 27 (15.0) 23 (14.8) 0.967 20 (22.7) 15 (21.4) 0.845 0.118 0.222
 Coronary heart disease, n (%) 40 (8.1) 14 (7.8) 14 (9.0) 0.679 8 (9.1) 4 (5.7) 0.426 0.713 0.396
 Renal dysfunctiona, n (%) 112 (22.7) 40 (22.2) 33 (21.3) 0.837 20 (22.7) 19 (27.1) 0.523 0.926 0.335
 COPD, n (%) 29 (5.9) 8 (4.4) 8 (5.2) 0.759 7 (8.0) 6 (8.6) 0.889 0.373 0.495
 OSAS, n (%) 48 (9.7) 15 (8.3) 14 (9.0) 0.821 9 (10.2) 10 (14.3) 0.436 0.610 0.237
 Moderate or severe AR, n (%) 170 (34.5) 60 (33.3) 53 (34.2) 0.868 30 (34.1) 27 (38.6) 0.560 0.902 0.525
 Malperfusion syndromes, n (%) 88 (17.8) 32 (17.8) 29 (18.7) 0.826 15 (17.0) 12 (17.1) 0.987 0.882 0.778
 EF, (%) 62.7 ± 6.7 63.5 ± 9.9 62.8 ± 7.7 0.468 61.7 ± 8.9 62.5 ± 10.2 0.600 0.150 0.827
 Serum creatinine (umol/L) 118.8 ± 98.6 112.6 ± 87.8 113.9 ± 98.4 0.898 119.6 ± 98.6 120.5 ± 88.5 0.953 0.557 0.632
 Hb (mg/dl) 12.58 ± 2.05 12.56 ± 2.35 12.86 ± 2.84 0.298 12.66 ± 2.88 12.69 ± 2.01 0.939 0.778 0.608
 HCT (%) 41.50 ± 3.96 40.98 ± 3.96 41.80 ± 3.64 0.051 40.94 ± 3.87 41.57 ± 3.88 0.312 0.938 0.260
Primary indication     0.422    0.742 0.893 0.209
 Aortic aneurysm 83 (16.8) 33 (18.3) 22 (14.2)   14 (15.9) 14 (20.0)    
 Type A aortic dissection 401 (81.4) 144 (80.0) 128 (82.6)   73 (83.0) 56 (80.0)    
 Type A AIH 9 (1.8) 3 (1.7) 5 (3.2)   1 (1.1) 0 (0.0)    
  1. Continuous variables are confirmed normally distributed and are expressed as mean ± SD, categorical variables are expressed as number (%). Chi-square or Fisher test for categorical variables and t test for continuous variables
  2. P1, P2: P value of FMS group versus PUS group in non-obese and obese patients, respectively
  3. P3, P4: P value of non-obese patients versus obese patients in FMS and PUS group, respectively
  4. AR aortic valve regurgitation, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, OSAS obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome, EF ejection fraction, Hb haemoglobin, HCT haematocrit, SD standard deviation, AIH aortic intramural hematoma
  5. aDefined as preoperative creatinine greater than 1.5 mg/dL