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Table 3 Postoperative event rates of clinical outcomes

From: Surgical outcomes associated with partial upper sternotomy in obese aortic disease patients

Events Total Non-obese Obese P3 P4
FMS PUS P1 FMS PUS P2
Patients, n (%) 493 180 (36.5) 155 (31.5) 88 (17.8) 70 (14.2)   
Infections, n (%)          
 SSI 38 (7.7) 11 (6.1) 13 (8.4) 0.421 7 (8.0) 7 (10.0) 0.653 0.571 0.694
 DSSI 18 (3.7) 5 (2.8) 5 (3.2) 1.000 4 (4.5) 4 (5.7) 1.000 0.694 0.607
Cardiac, n (%)          
 Resternotomy for major bleeding 21 (4.3) 7 (3.9) 6 (3.9) 0.983 4 (4.5) 4 (5.7) 1.000 1.000 0.786
 Cardiac arrest 15 (3.0) 5 (2.8) 4 (2.6) 1.000 3 (3.4) 3 (4.3) 1.000 1.000 0.789
 MI 10 (2.0) 3 (1.7) 3 (1.9) 1.000 2 (2.3) 2 (2.9) 1.000 1.000 1.000
 Neurologic dysfunctiona 18 (3.7) 6 (3.3) 6 (3.9) 1.000 3 (3.4) 3 (4.3) 1.000 1.000 1.000
 Temporary 12 (2.4) 4 (2.2) 4 (2.6) 1.000 2 (2.3) 2 (2.9) 1.000 1.000 1.000
 Permanent 6 (1.0) 2 (1.1) 2 (1.3) 1.000 1 (1.1) 1 (1.4) 1.000 1.000 1.000
Renal, n (%)          
 Acute kidney injuryb 157 (31.8) 57 (31.7) 55 (35.5) 0.460 25 (28.4) 20 (28.6) 0.982 0.587 0.309
 Dialysis (%) 107 (21.7) 37 (20.6) 32 (20.6) 0.984 20 (22.7) 18 (25.7) 0.663 0.683 0.397
 Hepatic insufficiencyc 145 (29.4) 50 (27.8) 46 (29.7) 0.701 26 (29.5) 23 (32.9) 0.655 0.763 0.632
Pulmonary, n (%)          
 Pneumoniad 335 (68.0) 125 (69.4) 92 (59.4) 0.054 70 (79.5) 48 (68.6) 0.115 0.081 0.187
 Reintubation 97 (19.7) 36 (20.0) 28 (18.1) 0.653 19 (21.6) 14 (20.0) 0.525 0.762 0.730
 Tracheotomy 67 (13.6) 24 (13.3) 20 (12.9) 0.907 14 (15.9) 9 (14.3) 0.589 0.570 0.992
 Ventilation time (h) 108.2 ± 82.3 107.2 ± 62.2 90.2 ± 40.6 0.003 129.8 ± 77.8 106.2 ± 60.0 0.033 0.019 0.045
 Multiple organ dysfunction syndromee, n (%) 16 (3.2) 6 (3.3) 5 (3.2) 0.956 2 (2.3) 3 (4.3) 0.794 0.923 0.993
Transfusion requirements          
 Packed red blood cells (units) 5.77 ± 4.96 6.75 ± 4.73 4.34 ± 2.99 < 0.001 6.88 ± 4.66 4.76 ± 3.08 0.001 0.832 0.335
 Fresh frozen plasma (mL) 470.8 ± 150.8 480.6 ± 188.6 410.0 ± 99.6 < 0.001 511.9 ± 174.9 435.8 ± 108.5 0.001 0.193 0.082
 Platelets (units) 9.18 ± 5.50 9.66 ± 6.50 8.96 ± 6.70 0.333 10.03 ± 5.32 8.88 ± 5.56 0.188 0.620 0.926
Length of stay          
 ICU (days) 5.8 ± 3.7 6.3 ± 3.5 5.5 ± 2.6 0.017 7.8 ± 4.7 5.5 ± 3.5 0.001 0.080 1.000
 Hospital (days) 18.9 ± 14.8 20.0 ± 10.8 16.2 ± 9.8 0.001 21.5 ± 10.5 17.2 ± 9.9 0.010 0.282 0.481
 In-hospital mortality, n (%) 25 (5.1) 10 (5.6) 7 (4.5) 0.666 5 (5.7) 3 (4.3) 0.974 1.000 1.000
  1. Continuous variables are confirmed normally distributed and are expressed as mean ± SD, categorical variables are expressed as number (%). Chi-square or Fisher test for categorical variables and t test for continuous variables
  2. P1, P2: P value of FMS group versus PUS group in non-obese and obese patients, respectively
  3. P3, P4: P value of non-obese patients versus obese patients in FMS and PUS group, respectively
  4. DSSI deep surgical site infection requiring revision, MI myocardial infarction, SSI surgical site infection
  5. aDefined as coma, delayed awakening, disorientation, convulsions, hemiplegia, severe limb muscle dysfunction, etc.
  6. bDefined as 50% rise in baseline creatinine or new need for dialysis
  7. cDefined as bilirubin greater than 5 mg/dL persisting for more than 5 days postoperatively
  8. dDefined as chest roentgenogram diagnosing pneumonia after cardiac surgery
  9. eDefined as two or more organs or systems simultaneously or sequentially in the process of acute diseases such as severe trauma, shock, infection, and major surgical operations