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Table 3 The 4 classes of risk defined by the FLAM score

From: Anticipating pulmonary complications after thoracotomy: the FLAM Score

FLAM peak value n Pulmonary complications Respiratory Failure Death
0 – 9 236 8 (3.3%) 0 0
10 – 18 42 32 (76.2%) 6 (18.7%) 1 (3.1%)
19 – 27 8 6 (87.5%) 4 (57.1%) 2 (28.7%)
> 27 14 14 (92.8%) 9 (69.2%) 6 (46.1%)
  1. Considering the highest FLAM value recorded, it was possible to define 4 class with increasing risk of pulmonary complication and severity. It was called "the rule of 9" because class are identified by multiple of nine.