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Table 1 Baseline patient and tumor characteristics of pulmonary metastasectomies performed from January 1986 to November 2006

From: Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) as a safe alternative for the resection of pulmonary metastases: a retrospective cohort study

  All (n = 171) OPEN (n = 135) VATS (n = 36) p-value†
Age (in years)*     < 0.01†
   Median (Interquartile range) 53 (43–63) 49 (40–61) 58.5 (50.5–71)  
   95% C.I. 49 to 56 47 to 55.25 52.85 to 66.29  
Sex     0.26
   Female 71 (41.5) 53 (39.3) 18 (50)  
   Male 100 (58.5) 82 (60.7) 18 (50)  
Race     0.06
   Caucasian 140 (81.9) 112 (83.0) 28 (78)  
   non-Caucasian 31 (18.1) 23 (17) 8 (22)  
Comorbidities     
   Single 61 (35.7) 45 (33.3) 16 (44) 0.24
   3 comorbidities 10 (5.8) 5 (3.7) 5 (14) 0.04†
   Smoker 62 (36.3) 47 (34.8) 15 (41.7) 0.44
Primary Tumor Type     < 0.01†
   Bladder 3 (1.8) 2 (1.5) 1 (3)  
   Breast AC 9 (5.3) 5 (3.7) 4 (11)  
   Colorectal AC 26 (15.2) 14 (10.4) 12 (33)  
   Head/Neck 4 (2.3) 3 (2.2) 1 (3)  
   Melanoma 14 (8.2) 6 (4.4) 8 (22)  
   Renal cell 22 (12.9) 21 (15.6) 1 (3)  
   Sarcoma 81 (47.4) 73 (54.1) 8 (22)  
   Testicular 5 (2.9) 5 (3.7) -  
   Other 7 (4.1) 6 (4.4) 1 (3)  
Adjuvant therapy     
   Chemotherapy 129 (75.4) 106 (78.5) 23 (64) 0.08
   Radiation 73 (42.7) 54 (40) 19 (53) 0.19
Laterality     < 0.01†
   Unilateral 124 (72.5) 90 (66.7) 34 (94)  
   Bilateral 47 (27.5) 45 (33.3) 2 (6)  
Magnitude     0.06
   Wedge resection 118 (69) 88 (65.2) 30 (83)  
   All other 53 (31) 47 (34.8) 6 (16.7)  
Number of lesions     < 0.01†
   Single 48 (28.1) 28 (20.7) 20 (56)  
   2–5 94 (55) 79 (58.5) 15 (42)  
   > 5 29 (17) 28 (20.7) 1 (3)  
Metastatic Occurrences     0.15
   1 102 (59.6) 76 (56.3) 26 (72)  
   2 38 (22.2) 31 (23) 7 (19)  
   3+ 31 (18.1) 28 (20.7) 3 (8)  
Deaths 74 (43) 65 (48) 9 (25) 0.02†
  1. *All characteristics are expressed as no. (%), unless specified otherwise. Some covariables were grouped to preserve a 10% number of patients in each category for analysis. Non-Caucasian includes: Asian (10 OPEN; 7 VATS), Black (4 OPEN; 1 VATS) and Latino (9 OPEN; 0 VATS). All other includes: segmentectomy (17 OPEN; 4 VATS), lobectomy (29 OPEN; 2 VATS) and pneumonectomy (1 OPEN; 0 VATS). When PTT was categorized into carcinoma (includes bladder, breast, colorectal, melanoma, head/neck, renal cell, testicular, and 3 other type) and sarcoma (includes sarcoma and 3 other type), a statistical difference remained (p < 0.001). † Pearson χ2 or Fisher exact; two-tailed p-value < 0.05 considered statistically significant.