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Table 1 Training pathways leading to board certification in cardiothoracic surgery in United States

From: Comparison of cardiothoracic surgery training in usa and germany

Pathway Total length of training* Components Duration of each component Board certification
Classical 7-8 years General surgery residency 5 years General surgery (optional)
   Thoracic surgery fellowship 2-3 years Thoracic surgery
Fast-track (4+3) 7 years General surgery residency 4 years General surgery (optional)
   Thoracic surgery fellowship 3 years Thoracic surgery
Integrated 6 years Integrated cardiothoracic surgery residency 6 years Thoracic surgery
Vascular + Thoracic 7-8 years Integrated vascular surgery residency 5 years Vascular surgery
   Thoracic surgery fellowship 2-3 years Thoracic surgery
  1. * not considering time off for dedicated research or other academic enrichment
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