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Table 4 Complications of OPOTTMIS for simple CHD.

From: Off-pump occlusion of trans-thoracic minimal invasive surgery (OPOTTMIS) on simple congenital heart diseases (ASD, VSD and PDA) attached consecutive 210 cases report: A single institute experience

Stratification OPOTTMIS complications
Operation relative (approximately 5%) Occulder migration; Residual shunt; Bleeding; Arthythmia (Conduction block, Atrial fibrillation); Hemolysis; Blood thrombus; Air embolus; Infection; Hemopneumothorax; Pericardial tamponade; Death.
TEE relative (approximately 1 ~ 3%) Serious: Death; Esophagus and gastric perforation; Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage; Arthythmia; Aspiration pneumonitis.
Mild: Temporary air duct compression; Ventilation restriction; Descending aorta compression.
  1. TEE, trans-esophageal echocardiography.