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Table 1 Clinical characteristics and perioperative data for the landiolol and control groups

From: Postoperative atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting or cardiac valve surgery: intraoperative use of landiolol

  Control Landiolol P value
(n=48) (n=57)
Age (yr) 65.7 ± 12.6 67.2 ± 11.5 NS
NYHA class 1.9 ± 0.7 1.9 ± 0.7 NS
BMI 23.0 ± 4.1 23.0 ± 3.4 NS
Hypertension 38 (79.2) 47 (82.4) NS
Diabetes 14 (29.2) 18 (31.6) NS
Hyperlipidemia 18 (37.5) 25 (43.9) NS
Previous CHF 22 (45.8) 23 (40.4) NS
Previous MI 7 (14.6) 12 (21.1) NS
Previous AF 8 (16.7) 10 (17.5) NS
LV Ejection fraction (%) 60.5 ± 14.7 56.4 ± 15.2 NS
Preoperative ACE inhibitor use 38 (79.2) 37 (64.9) NS
Preoperative β-blocker use 24 (50.0) 29 (50.9) NS
Postoperative β-blocker use 16 (33.3) 41 (71.9) <0.0001
Preoperative Cr (mg/dL) 1.1 ± 1.8 1.3 ± 1.6 NS
Preoperative % VC 95 ± 21 94 ± 19 NS
Preoperative FEV 1.0% 82 ± 15 82 ± 14 NS
On-pump CABG 5 (10.4) 9 (15.8) NS
Off-pump CABG 14 (29.2) 27 (47.4) NS
Valve surgery    
  AVR 16 (33.3) 12 (21.1) NS
  MVR 3 (6.3) 2 (3,5) NS
  MVP 9 (18.8) 6 (10.5) NS
  TVP 1 (2.1) 1 (1.8) NS
Operating time (min) 344 ± 78 334 ± 86 NS
Blood loss (mL) 1159 ± 1036 1197 ± 1246 NS
Fluid and blood infusion volume (mL) 5471 ± 1657 5405 ± 1948 NS
Urine volume (mL) 1283 ± 933 1270 ± 948 NS
No. of patients receiving intraoperative remifentanil 32 (66.7) 39 (68.4) NS
Intraoperative remifentanil dose (μg/kg/min) 0.18 ± 0.06 0.21 ± 0.07 NS
Postoperative AF 12 (25.0) 5 (8.8) 0.02
  Time of onset of new AF (d) 2.2 ± 1.0 3.0 ± 1.2 NS
Length of ICU stay (d) 3.5 ± 2.0 3.0 ± 2.1 NS
Time to extubation (hr) 20.9 ± 41.6 16.0 ± 29.1 NS
Postoperative complications    
  Pulmonary edema 6 (12.5) 7 (12.3) NS
  Stroke 1 ((2.1) 0 NS
  Seizures 1 (2.1) 1 (1.8) NS
  Renal failure 0 1 (1.8) NS
  1. Values are shown as numbers (%) or as the mean ± SD. The unpaired t-test was used for comparison of between-group differences in means. Fisher’s exact test was used for comparison of between-group differences in categorical data. NYHA: New York Heart Association, CHF: congestive heart failure, MI: myocardial infarction, LV: left ventricular, ACE: angiotensin-converting enzyme, Cr: creatinine, AF: atrial fibrillation, ICU: intensive care unit.