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Table 1 Baseline and operative characteristics

From: Lessons learned from the use of 1,977 in-situ bilateral internal mammary arteries: a retrospective study

Variable (% unless otherwise indicated) BIMA Single IMA  
n = 1,977 n = 14,387 pvalue
Age (mean years ± SD) 55.5 ± 8.6 64.3 ± 9.6 <0.0001
Female 10.9 22.6 <0.0001
Body mass index (mean kg/m2 ± SD) 27.2 ± 3.7 27.9 ± 4.6 <0.0001
Diabetes mellitus 12.3 31.9 <0.0001
Insulin-dependent 2.5 9.7 <0.0001
Renal failure 3.4 7.4 <0.0001
Previous MI 50.5 52.3 0.13
Hypertension 49.3 64.0 <0.0001
Active smoking 32.2 22.0 <0.0001
COPD 6.2 13.1 <0.0001
Peripheral vascular disease 9.0 15.3 <0.0001
Previous stroke 3.1 6.3 <0.0001
LVEF ≤ 35% 3.9 6.7 <0.0001
CHF NYHA class III or IV 18.0 26.3 <0.0001
Atrial fibrillation 1.5 3.7 <0.0001
Three-vessel disease 58.7 53.0 <0.0001
Parsonnet score (mean ± SD) 1.4 ± 0.9 2.1 ± 2.2 <0.0001
EuroSCORE (mean ± SD) 1.9 ± 2.7 3.6 ± 4.5 <0.0001
Operative Data    
Urgent or emergency 18.5 23.1 <0.0001
Off-pump 2.3 3.2 0.03
Aortic clamp time (mean min ± SD) 57.6 ± 18.2 50.7 ± 18.3 <0.0001
CPB time (mean min ± SD) 82.4 ± 23.8 76.4 ± 23.7 <0.0001
Number of distals (mean ± SD) 3.6 ± 1.0 3.3 ± 1.0 <0.0001
  1. BIMA bilateral internal mammary artery, CPB Cardiopulmonary bypass, CHF congestive heart failure, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, IMA internal mammary artery, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, MI myocardial infarction, NYHA New York Heart Association, SD standard deviation.