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Table 5 Significant risk factors for long-term survival by Cox regression analysis

From: Association between older age and outcome after cardiac surgery: a population-based cohort study

Factors HR (95% CI) P value
Age 65–79 (referent group 18–49 years) 2.81 (2.02-3.90) <0.001
Age ≥80 (referent group 18–49 years) 5.30 (3.70-7.59) <0.001
Pre-operative co-morbidities   
Type 1 Diabetes 1.98 (1.17-3.34) 0.011
Type 2 Diabetes 1.43 (1.25-1.64) <0.001
Smoking 1.52 (1.25-1.86) <0.001
CHF 1.72 (1.47-2.00) <0.001
PVD 1.47 (1.24-1.74) <0.001
Stroke 1.33 (1.14-1.56) <0.001
ESKD on dialysis 3.61 (2.64-4.94) <0.001
Malignancy 2.08 (1.66-2.61) <0.001
EF 35-50% (referent group EF > 50%) 1.20 (1.00-1.43) 0.045
EF < 35% (referent group EF > 50%) 1.54 (1.23-1.94) <0.001
Surgery type   
AVR + CABG (referent group isolated CABG) 1.61 (1.29-2.00) <0.001
MVR + CABG (referent group isolated CABG) 1.31 (1.00-1.70) 0.047
2 or more valves (referent group isolated CABG) 1.48 (1.08-2.04) 0.015
Post-operative complications   
Infection 1.28 (1.07-1.53) 0.007
Neurologic events 1.45 (1.12-1.88) 0.004
Pulmonary complications 1.27 (1.08-1.50) 0.004
Acute kidney injury on CRRT 2.10 (1.74-2.54) <0.001
Cardiac arrest 2.72 (2.07-3.58) <0.001
CVICU re-admission 1.32 (1.05-1.67) 0.019
  1. HR: hazard ratio; CI: confidence interval; PCI: percutaneous coronary intervention; CHF: congestive heart failure; PVD: peripheral vascular disease; CVA: cerebral vascular attack; CRF: chronic renal failure; EF: ejection fraction; CABG: coronary artery bypass grafting; AVR: aortic valve repair/replacement; MVR: mitral valve repair/replacement; CRRT: continuous renal replacement therapy; CVICU: cardiovascular surgical intensive care unit.