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Table 1 Baseline data of all included patients

From: Impact of smoking on early clinical outcomes in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery

Variables Non-smoking group Smoking group
Total Former smoking subgroup Current smoking subgroup
(n = 1544) (n = 2186) (n = 614) (n = 1572)
Age (years) 65.7 ± 9.7 62.2 ± 9.4* 60.7 ± 8.8* 65.3 ± 9.2
Male 1051 (68.1%) 2156 (98.6%)* 602 (98.0%)* 1554 (98.9%)*
BMI (kg/m2) 24.8 ± 3.2 25.1 ± 3.1* 25.2 ± 3.0* 24.9 ± 3.1
Familial history of CAD 1425(92.3%) 1994(91.2%) 556(90.6%) 1438(91.5%)
Diabetes mellitus 559(36.2%) 783(35.8%) 230(37.5%) 553(35.2%)
Hypertension 897(58.1%) 1103 (50.5%)* 344(56.0%) 759 (48.3%)*
Hyperlipemia 597(38.7%) 684 (31.3%)* 212(34.5%) 472 (30.0%)*
COPD 94 (6.1%) 306 (14.0%)* 97 (15.8%)* 209 (13.3%)*
History of MI 721(46.7%) 1158 (53.0%)* 319 (51.9%)* 839(53.4%)*
Prior CVA 240(15.5%) 348(15.9%) 108(17.6%) 240(15.3%)
Coronary artery lesion     
Double-vessel 134(8.7%) 198 (9.0%) 54 (8.8%) 144(9.1%)
Triple-vessel 1408(91.2%) 1985(90.8%) 558(90.9%) 1427(90.8%)
Left main 378(24.5%) 529 (24.2%) 147 (23.9%) 382 (24.3%)
SYNTAX score     
Low: ≤ 22 278 (18.0%) 306 (14.0%) 101 (16.4%) 200 (13.1%)
Intermediate: 23-32 793 (51.4%) 1194 (54.6%) 324 (52.8%) 870 (55.3%)
High: ≥33 473 (30.6%) 686 (31.4%) 189 (30.8%) 497 (31.6%)
LVEF (%) 59.7 ± 9.0 57.9 ± 9.9* 57.5 ± 9.7* 58.1 ± 9.8*
>50% 1275 (82.6%) 1631 (74.6%)* 463 (75.4%)* 1168 (74.3%)*
35-50% 178 (11.5%) 407(18.6%)* 99 (16.1%)* 308 (19.6%)*
<35% 91 (5.9%) 148 (6.8%)* 52(8.5%)* 96 (6.1%)
Emergence operation 123 (8.0%) 179 (8.2%) 49 (7.9%) 130 (8.3%)
On-pump CABG 418(27.1%) 439 (20.1%)* 163(26.5%) 276 (17.6%)*
CPB (min) 78.2 ± 31.4 79.6 ± 27.8 75.5 ± 24.8 80.1 ± 28.4
ACC (min) 57.2 ± 20.6 58.5 ± 19.5 57.4 ± 18.6 59.4 ± 20.6
Use of IMA 1518 (98.3%) 2144 (98.1%) 603 (98.2%) 1541 (98.0%)
Number of grafts 3.3 ± 0.5 3.3 ± 0.4 3.3 ± 0.6 3.3 ± 0.4
  1. Fisher’s exact test was employed to compare enumeration data, and t-test to compare measurement data.
  2. *p < 0.05 (as compared to Non-smoking group).
  3. BMI, body mass index; CAD, coronary artery disease; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; MI, myocardial infarction; CVA, cerebro-vascular accident; LVEF, Left ventricular ejection fraction; CABG, coronary artery bypass grafting; On-pump CABG, CABG with cardiopulmonary bypass; CPB, cardiopulmonary bypass; ACC, aortic cross clamp; IMA, internal mammary artery.