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Table 2 Visual analogue pain score at rest and coughing

From: Effect of sternal closure with biological bone adhesive on pain visual analogue score and serum cytokine

  CWC (n = 32) AEC (n = 30)  
Outcome variables Mean +/− SD Mean +/− SD p Value
Incisional pain at rest    
Time post operative    
24 hours 5.04 +/− 2.735 4.27 +/− 2.201 0.269
48 hours 3.88 +/− 2.42 2.77 +/− 1.945 0.073
72 hours 2.46 +/− 2.319 1.81 +/− 1.877 0.269
Day 7 1.21 +/− 1.668 1.00 +/− 1.865 0.685
Incisional pain with coughing    
Time post-operative    
24 hours 8.04 +/− 1.43 7.00 +/− 2.09 0.042
48 hours 7.12 +/− 1.608 5.27 +/− 1.971 0.001
72 hours 5.31 +/ - 2.168 4.65 +/− 2.077 0.272
Day 7 3.38 +/− 1.84 2.96 +/− 2.17 0.477
  1. CWC: Conventional wire closure.
  2. AEC: Adhesive enhanced closure.