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Table 6 Echocardiographic postoperative results

From: Mid-term results of 150 TAVI comparing apical versus femoral approaches

Echocardiographic characteristics Preoperative Postoperative One month Six months One year Two years
Population (n) n = 150 n = 144 n = 125 n = 101 n = 52 n = 25
Mean gradient (mmHg) 52.8 +/−11.5 11.8+/−4.9 11+/−4.6 11.5+/−5.2 11.9+/−4.4 11.2+/−3.8
p < 0.001 p < 0.001
Maximal gradient (mmHg) 83.7 +/−16.1 21.5+/−8.1 22.1+/−18.8 21.4+/−7.7 20.5+/−5.6 19.6+/−4.3
p < 0.001 p < 0.001
Vmax (m/s) 4.3 +/−0.8 2.1+/−0.4 1.7+/−0.5 1.7+/−0.6 1.6+/−0.5 1.7+/−0.5
p < 0.001 p < 0.001
Aortic area (cm2) 0.6 +/−0.2 1.6+/−0.4 1.2+/−0.4 1.2+/−0.3 1.2+/−0.4 1.2+/−0.4
p < 0.001 p < 0.001
LVEF (%) 52.8+/−12.5 52.4+/−12.1 54.6+/−10.4 55+/−10.7 54.4+/−10.9 52.8+/−12.5
p = 0.002 p = 0.026 p = 0.056
Diastolic function E/E’ 11.4+/−4.2 11.4+/−3.8 11.5+/−3.4 11.7+/−3.8 11.5+/−3.4 11.7+/−3.9
NS
PAPS (mmHg) 46.3+/− 12.6 40.8+/−12 41.7+/−10.7 41.5+/−10.5 40.5+/−11.2 38.8+/−6.4
p = 0.006 p < 0.001 p = 0.078 p = 0.045
TAPSE (mm) 15.2+/−3 13.8+/−3.2 15.4+/−3 15.1+/−2.9 14.8+/−3.4 14.2+/−3.2
NS
Central aortic regurgitation / 4 (2.8 %) 3 (2.4 %) 2 (2.0 %) 1 (1.9 %) 0 (0 %)
NS
Paraprosthetic regurgitation / 74 (51.4 %) 38 (30.4 %) 14 (13.8 %) 10 (19.2 %) 8 (32.0 %)
p < 0.001
Grade 1 / 35 (24.3 %) 24 (19.2 %) 6 (59.4 %) 6 (11.5 %) 6 (24.0 %)
Grade 2 / 39 (27.1 %) 13 (10.6 %) 8 (7.9 %) 4 (7.6 %) 2 (8 %)
Mitral regurgitation 63 (42 %) 83 (57.6 %) 88 (70.6 %) 72 (71.2 %) 37 (71.1 %) 19 (76.0 %)
Grade 1 29 (19.3 %) 12 (8.3 %) 49 (32.2 %) 33 (32.6 %) 15 (19.2 %) 8 (32.0 %)
Grade 2 31 (20.7 %) 71 (49.3 %) 39 (31.2 %) 39 (38.6 %) 22 (42.3 %) 11 (44.0 %)
Grade 3 3 (2 %) 0 (0 %) 0 (0 %) 0 (0 %) 0 (0 %) 0 (0 %)
  1. LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, PASP pulmonary artery systolic pressure, TAPSE tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion