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Table 1 Patient characteristic

From: Long-term results of minimally invasive stand-alone bi-atrial surgical ablation with a bipolar ablation device for persistent and longstanding persistent AF: a single-center case series of 91 patients

  Overall (N = 91) Persistent AF (N = 78) Long standing persistent AF (N = 13) P value
Follow up (months) 60 ± 21 60 ± 21 63 ± 19 0.569
Age (years) 53 ± 10 53 ± 9 52 ± 11 0.661
Patients < 65 years old 80 (87 %) 69 (89 %) 11 (85 %) 0.694
Patients 65–74 years old 10 (11 %) 8 (10 %) 2 (15 %) 0.631
Patients > 65–74 years old 1 (1 %) 1 (1 %) 0 (0 %) 1.000
Female gender 21 (23 %) 19 (24 %) 2 (15 %) 0.726
LV dysfunction 11 (12 %) 8 (10 %) 3 (23 %) 0.189
Hypertension 73 (80 %) 62 (80 %) 11 (85 %) 1.000
Diabetes Mellitus 5 (6 %) 4 (5 %) 1 (8 %) 0.546
History of TIA 5 (5 %) 4 (8 %) 1 (8 %) 1.000
Stroke on adequate anticoagulation 2 (2 %) 2 (2 %) 0 (0 %) 1.000
Peripheral vascular disease 4 (4 %) 4 (5 %) 0 (0 %) 1.000
CHA2DS2-VASc Score = 0 9 (10 %) 8 (10 %) 1 (8 %) 0.774
CHA2DS2-VASc Score = 1 47 (52 %) 40 (51 %) 7 (54 %) 0.864
CHA2DS2-VASc Score ≥2 35 (38 %) 30 (38 %) 4 (30 %) 0.596
AF duration (months) 73 ± 66 40 ± 37 79 ± 69 0.006
Failed catheter ablation 10 (21 %) 17 (22 %) 2 (15 %) 0.598
Failed catheter ablation >1 time 9 (10 %) 7 (10 %) 2 (15 %) 0.474
Median LVEF (%) 55 (30–65) 55 (30–65) 55 (40–55) 0.293
LA diameter (cm) 4.3 ± 0.5 4.2 ± 0.5 4.7 ± 0.4 0.046
Operative
Median operation duration (min) 180 (90–280) 180 (90–280) 170 (120–240) 0.497
Ablation time (min) 14 ± 4 13 ± 4 15 ± 6 0.772
PV Ablation time (min) 10 ± 3 10 ± 3 10 ± 5 0.864
RA Ablation time (min) 5 ± 3 6 ± 4 4 ± 2 0.293
Division of ligament of Marshall 61 (67 %) 55 (71 %) 6 (46 %) 0.112
Box lesion around PVs (exit block achieved) 80 (88 %) 70 (90 %) 10 (77 %) 0.189
  1. Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation, median and range or percent
  2. AF atrial fibrillation, LA left atrial, LV left ventricle, PV pulmonary vein, PVI PV isolation, RA right atrial, TIA transient ischemic attack