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Table 3 Summary of clinical characteristics of the patients in the retrieved articles and the present study

From: Bronchoscopic balloon dilatation for tuberculosis-associated tracheal stenosis: a two case report and a literature review

Category   Number of cases
Total   476
Malignant stricture   85
Bronchial carcinoma 78
Magligance 7
Benign stricture   391
Endotracheal intubation 84
Tracheal tuberculosis 72
Prolonged mechanical ventilation 11
Lung transplantation 166
Lung carcinoma 4
Wegener’s granulomatosis 6
Idiopathic stenosis 4
Post-Tracheostomy 31
Sarcoidosis 3
  Amyloidosis 2
Unknown 1
Ventilation mode Intermittent ventilation 7
Ventilation ducts 13
dilation duration 10-30 s 256
30s-1 min 3
1-3 min 2
40 min 1
Ballon pressure (atm)* <3 3
3-5 81
>5 3
Outcome Valid 176
Invalid 25
Follow-up (months) 0-6 79
6-12 2
>12 395
Complication Granulation tissue formation 30
Tracheoesophegial fistula 1
Tracheal laceration 4
Bronchospasm 1
Laceration of bronchial artery 1