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Table 1 Exclusion criteria

From: Rationale and design of the multicenter randomized trial investigating the effects of levosimendan pretreatment in patients with low ejection fraction (≤40 %) undergoing CABG with cardiopulmonary bypass (LICORN study)

Preoperative renal failure (creatinine clearance < 30 ml/min)
Liver failure (prothrombine time < 50 %, in the absence of vitamin K antagonist
Cardiac surgery without CABG
Emergency surgery, defined as surgery within the 24 h of the operative indication
Known allergy to levosimendan
Severe hypotension prior to surgery (mean arterial pressure < 60 mmHg)
Severe tachycardia prior to surgery (heart rate > 120 bpm)
Prior history of torsade de pointe
Dynamic obstruction of the left ventricular outflow tract
Lack of signed informed consent
Lack of affiliation to social security
Patient already involved in another trial