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Table 5 Risk factors for pneumothorax secondary to GPA

From: Risk factors and treatment of pneumothorax secondary to granulomatosis with polyangiitis: a clinical analysis of 25 cases

Risk factors N
Active stage of Granulomatous vasculitis 19/20(95.0%)a
Pulmonary nodules broke into the chest cavity 15
Pleural necrotizing granulomatous vasculitis 1/12 (8.3%)b
Bronchial pleural fistula 2/12 (16.7%)b
Lesions fibrosis with pleural cohesion 1/12 (8.3%)b
Secondary infection in nodule cavity 3
Lesions fibrosis due to immunosuppressant 1
Delayed wound healing due to Glucocorticoid 2
Others 1
  1. aBased on symptoms, laboratory tests, pathology
  2. bLung biopsy in 12 cases