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Table 1 Baseline characteristics according to randomized left atrial appendage closure

From: Adding left atrial appendage closure to open heart surgery provides protection from ischemic brain injury six years after surgery independently of atrial fibrillation history: the LAACS randomized study

Variable Not closed (n = 86) Closed (n = 101)  
Age – years 69.3 ± 8.8 67.6 ± 9.6  
Men - n (%) 75 (87.2) 84 (83.2)  
Clinical characteristics
 Congestive heart failure - n (%) 15 (17.9) 16 (15.8)  
 Atrial fibrillation - n (%) 12 (12.8) 18 (16.8)  
 Diabetes - n (%) 19 (22.1) 31 (30.7)  
 Hypertension - n (%) 60 (69.8) 75 (74.3)  
 CHADS-VASc – unit 2.9 ± 1.4 2.9 ± 1.5  
 Prior stroke - n (%) 15 (17.4) 11 (10.9)  
 Chronic kidney diseasea - n (%) 14 (16.3) 15 (14.9)  
Medicine
 ASA - n (%) 69 (80.2) 75 (74.3)  
 Clopidogrel - n (%) 14 (16.3) 19 (18.8)  
 OAC
  VKA - n (%) 26 (30.2) 36 (35.6)  
  NOAC - n (%) 2 (2.2) 2 (2.0)  
 Beta-blocker - n (%) 47 (54.7) 61 (60.4)  
 Verapamil - n (%) 4 (4.5) 2 (2.0)  
 Calcium-blocker - n (%) 19 (21.3) 34 (33.7)  
 Digoxin - n (%) 5 (5.6) 3 (3.0)  
 Renin-angiotensin system blocker - n (%) 40 (46.5) 54 (53.5)  
 Amiodarone - n (%) 23 (26.7) 18 (17.8)  
 Statin - n (%) 74 (86.0) 81 (80.2)  
Procedural characteristics
Surgery type
AVR only - n (%) 17 (19.1) 17 (16.8)  
AVR with CABG - n (%) 20 (22.5) 22 (21.8)  
AVR with aortic surgery - n (%) 1 (1.1) 1 (1.0)  
AVR with MVR - n (%) 0 (0) 2 (2.0)  
Aortic surgery only - n (%) 1 (1.1) 0 (0)  
CABG only - n (%) 40 (46.5) 50 (49.5)  
CABG with MVR - n (%) 2 (2.3) 2 (2.0)  
MVR only - n (%) 4 (4.5) 7 (6.9)  
Tricuspid surgery only - n (%) 1 (1.2) 0 (0)  
Perioperative atrial fibrillation - n (%) 52 (60.5) 50 (50.0)  
  1. Abbreviations CHADS-VASc Congestive heart failure, hypertension, age [≥75 years], diabetes, stroke – peripheral vascular disease, age [≥65 years], sex-category, OAC Oral anticoagulation, VKA Vitamin K-antagonist, NOAC Novel oral anticoagulation, IQR: interquartile range
  2. aeGFR< 30 ml/min