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Table 2 MV pathologies and echocardiographic parameters

From: Long-term outcome after mitral valve replacement using biological versus mechanical valves

  Total
N = 324
Biological MVR
N = 265
Mechanical MVR
N = 59
p-value
MV pathologies     0.712
 Functional, % 13/324 (4.0) 10/265 (3.8) 3/59 (5.1)  
 Degenerative, % 311/324 (96.0) 255/265 (96.2) 56/59 (94.9)  
 Acute endocarditis, % 47/324 (14.5) 37/265 (14.0) 10/59 (16.9) 0.556
 MV stenosis, % 93/324 (28.7) 71/265 (26.8) 22/59 (37.3) 0.107
 Annulus dilatation, % 231/324 (71.3) 189/265 (71.3) 42/59 (71.2) 0.984
 Annulus calcification, % 91/324 (28.1) 72/265 (27.2) 19/59 (32.2) 0.437
 AML prolapse, % 78/324 (24.1) 69/265 (23.0) 17/59 (28.8) 0.346
 AML flail, % 35/324 (10.8) 27/265 (10.2) 8/59 (13.6) 0.395
 PML prolapse, % 119/324 (36.7) 99/265 (37.4) 20/59 (33.9) 0.618
 PML flail, % 83/324 (25.6) 72/265 (27.2) 11/59 (18.6) 0.175
 Chordae elongation, % 54/324 (16.7) 42/265 (15.8) 12/59 (20.3) 0.403
 Restrictive leaflet, % 157/324 (48.5) 126/265 (47.5) 31/59 (52.5) 0.487
 MV insuff. Grade ≥ IIa, % 313/324 (96.6) 260/265 (98.1) 53/59 (89.8) 0.006
Echocardiographic parameters
 LVEF, % 56.0 [50.0–60.0] [324] 58.0 [50.0–60.0] [265] 55.0 [48.3–60.0] [59] 0.292
 LVEDD (mm) 54.0 [49.0–59.0] [214] 54.0 [49.0–59.0] [200] 54.0 [50.0–57.0] [49] 0.950
 LVESD (mm) 35.0 [31.0–40.5] [237] 35.0 [31.0–41.0] [191] 35.0 [32.0–40.0] [46] 0.444
 Left atrium (mm) 55.0 ± 10.5 [251] 54.5 ± 10.2 [203] 57.2 ± 11.9 [48] 0.107
 Right atrium (mm) 45.0 [38.0–53.0] [251] 45.0 [38.0–53.0] [203] 48.5 [39.3–54.5] [48] 0.318
 Mitral opening (mm) 3.4 ± 1.8 [93] 3.4 ± 1.6 [79] 3.3 ± 2.6 [14] 0.966
 PISA radius (mm) 1.0 [1.0–1.2] [56] 1.0 [1.0–1.2] [46] 1.0 [0.9–1.1] [10] 0.426
 Vena contracta (mm) 6.0 [5.0–7.0] [90] 6.0 [4.0–7.0] [78] 6.0 [5.0–7.0] [12] 0.717
  1. Legend: Values are patients applicable/patients with available information with percentage in brackets OR means ± SD with available patient numbers in brackets OR medians with IQR in brackets and available patient number in brackets; a patients with MR grade < II initially underwent mitral valve repair and, in cases where the result was not satisfactory, underwent mitral valve replacement
  2. AML anterior mitral valve leaflet, LVEDD left ventricular end diastolic pressure, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, LVESD left ventricular end systolic pressure, MV mitral valve, PISA proximal isovelocity surface area, PML posterior mitral valve leaflet, SD standard deviation