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Table 1 Baseline demographics, clinical characteristics, and echocardiographic values

From: Safety and long-term efficacy of thoracoscopic Epicardial ablation in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation: a retrospective study

 All (n = 55)No recurrence (n = 36)Recurrence (n = 19)P-valueHR95% CI
Demographics
 Age61.6 +/−  10.760.0 +/−  11.664.9 +/11.60.1041.020.99–1.07
 Males44 (80.0%)26 (72.2%)18 (94.7%)0.7220.820.27–2.48
 Duration in AF (years)3.6 +/− 3.43.5 +/−  3.53.4 +/−  3.00.5131.350.84–1.53
 CHA2DS2-VASc Score2.0 +/− 1.61.9 +/− 1.52.2 +/−  1.70.890.980.73–1.3
 Comorbidities
  Hypertension32 (58.2%)17 (47.2%)15 (78.9%)0.1871.690.64–4.46
  Hyperlipidemia26 (47.3%)13 (36.1%)13 (68.4%)0.6861.20.49–2.97
  Obstructive sleep apnea5 (9.1%)2 (5.6%)3 (15.8%)0.0353.341.09–10.28
  Coronary artery disease7 (12.7%)3 (8.3%)4 (21.1%)0.7450.810.24–2.81
  Cerebrovascular disease000   
  Diabetes mellitus6 (10.9%)4 (11.1%)2 (10.6%)0.9811.020.23–4.42
Echocardiographic values
 Ejection Fraction (%)61.8 +/− 5.661.0 +/− 6.262.2 +/− 4.30.5061.030.94–1.19
 Mitral regurgitation    4.010.93–20.57
 Mild35 (63.6%)17 (47.2%)17 (89.5%)0.056  
 Moderate or severe000   
 Tricuspid regurgitation    1.810.51–6.46
 Mild30 (54.5%)18 (50.0%)12 (63.3%)0.99  
 Moderate1 (1.8%)01 (5.3%)0.57  
 RA dilation    1.520.48–4.83
 Mild10 (18.2%)5 (9.1%)5 (26.3%)0.484  
 Moderate2 (3.6%)02 (10.5%)0.180  
 LA diameter (cm)4.0 +/− 0.63.9 +/− 0.64.0 +/− 0.50.2961.740.79–5.01
 LA volume index (cm/m2)29.3 +/− 8.027.4 +/− 5.831.1 +/− 9.40.3741.560.42–5.93