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Table 1 Preoperative patient characteristics. AF; atrial fibrillation, CVS; cerebrovascular stroke, COPD; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, CRF; chronic renal failure, LVEDD; left ventricular end-diastolic diameter, LVESD; left ventricular end-systolic diameter, LVEDV; left ventricular end-diastolic volume, PG; pressure gradient

From: Mitral valve replacement in mitral stenosis; the problem of small left ventricle

Preoperative patient characteristicsSmall LV group (N = 86)Normal or dilated LV group (N = 98)P-value
Age (years)34 ± 735 ± 80.02
Gender
Males/Females36 (42%)/ 50 (58%)46 (47%)/ 52 (53%)0.49
Body surface area (m2)1.68 ± 0.121.71 ± 0.160.15
Chronic AF58 (67%)68 (69%)0.78
Previous CVS18 (21%)25 (25.5%)0.46
Previous balloon commisurotomy24 (28%)37 (38%)0.16
Co-morbidities
 Diabetes mellitus6 (7%)8 (8%)0.76
 Systemic hypertension5 (5.8%)3 (3%)0.36
 COPD2 (2%)2 (2%)0.89
 Residual hemiparesis after previous CVS4 (4.6%)6 (6.1%)0.66
 CRF on regular dialysis1 (1.16%)0.46
Preoperative Echocardiographic date
 Mean LVEDD (cm)4.94 ± 0.805.51 ± 1.700.002
 Mean LVESD (cm)3.35 ± 0.183.54 ± 0.300.001
 Mean LVEDV index (ml/m2)34.48 ± 2.765.67 ± 3.40.001
 Mean mitral valve area (cm2)0.61 ± 0.200.62 ± 0.600.14
 Mean PG across the mitral valve (mmHg)20.68 ± 2.5620.03 ± 2.360.08
 Degree of associated mitral regurgitation  0.001
   ≤ + 175 (87%)8 (8%) 
   ≤ + 211 (13%)90 (92%) 
 Mean left atrial diameter (cm)5.12 ± 0.585.28 ± 0.610.07
 Mean pulmonary artery pressure (mmHg)54.17 ± 9.0851.78 ± 9.600.08
 Evidence of left atrial thrombus570.72