Skip to main content

Table 5 Characteristics of the patients without acute aortic syndrome

From: Risk factors analysis of acute kidney injury following open thoracic aortic surgery in the patients with or without acute aortic syndrome: a retrospective study

  No AKI AKI Stage P1 Value* P2 Value#
1 2 3
Patient population (n) 113 82 13 4   
Demographic data
 Age (y) 53.0 (17.5) 60.0 (11.0) 52.0 (14.0) 55.0 (19.5) 0.002 0.01
 Sex, male (n) 81 (71.7%) 64 (78.0%) 10 (76.9%) 3 (75.0%) 0.3 0.8
 Height (cm) 170.0 (14.0) 168.0 (10.5) 165.0 (15.0) 166.5 (4.5) 0.1 0.3
 Weight (kg) 67.0 (16.0) 69.1 (15.6) 66.0 (15.0) 62.0 (17.0) 0.6 0.2
 BMI (kg/m2) 24.2 (5.3) 25.0 (5.7) 22.9 (5.0) 22.8 (5.6) 0.09 0.09
Medical history
 Diabetes (n) 2 (1.8%) 3 (3.7%) 1 (7.7%) 0 (0.0%) 0.3 0.6
 Hypertension (n) 36 (31.9%) 39 (47.6%) 4 (30.8%) 0 (0.0%) 0.08 0.05
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n) 3 (2.7%) 5 (6.1%) 1 (7.7%) 0 (0.0%) 0.2 0.6
 Previous myocardial infarction (n) 1 (0.9%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 0.3 0.8
 Peripheral vascular disease (n) 9 (8.0%) 6 (7.3%) 1 (7.7%) 0 (0.0%) 0.8 0.9
 Smoking (n) 40 (35.4%) 38 (46.3%) 6 (46.2%) 3 (75.0%) 0.08 0.2
Preoperative laboratory tests
 Platelet (109/L) 197.0 (57.5) 183.0 (58.0) 203.0 (54.5) 137.5 (109.3) 0.03 0.09
Preoperative renal function
 eGFR(mL/min/1.73 m2) 99.8 (16.1) 95.9 (18.1) 101.7 (16.4) 97.2 (37.6) 0.04 0.02
Preoperative cardiovascular status
 Previous cardiovascular surgery (n) 2 (1.8%) 1 (1.2%) 0 (0.0%) 1 (25.0%) 0.9 0.008
 LVEF (%) 58.0 (8.0) 60.0 (4.5) 52.5 (17.8) 59.0 (11.8) 0.2 0.08
 Marfan syndrome (n) 11 (9.7%) 2 (2.4%) 1 (7.7%) 0 (0.0%) 0.05 0.2
Intraoperative blood product use
 Erythrocytes (u) 2.0 (3.0) 2.0 (4.0) 3.0 (3.0) 4.0 (6.0) 0.2 0.07
 Fresh frozen plasma (ml) 400.0 (0.0) 400.0 (0.0) 400.0 (300.0) 650.0 (450.0) 0.2 0.02
 Platelets (u) 1.0 (1.0) 1.0 (1.0) 1.0 (1.0) 2.0 (0.8) 0.5 0.004
Surgical details
 Involving the aortic arch (n) 29 (25.7%) 31 (37.8%) 3 (23.1%) 2 (50.0%) 0.09 0.2
 Involving the descending aorta (n) 0 (0.0%) 1 (1.2%) 0 (0.0%) 1 (25.0%) 0.1 < 0.001
 CPB duration(min) 117.5 (43.0) 131.0 (50.5) 137.0 (52.5) 187.5 (34.8) 0.005 0.003
 DHCA or MHCA (n) 10 (8.8%) 11 (13.4%) 0 (0.0%) 2 (50.0%) 0.3 0.03
 Aortic cross-clamp time (min) 81.0 (27.8) 83.0 (31.3) 94.0 (32.5) 122.0 (42.8) 0.08 0.04
 Operation time (h) 5.0 (1.0) 6.0 (1.5) 7.0 (2.3) 8.5 (2.5) < 0.001 < 0.001
Combined surgery
 CABG (n) 8 (7.1%) 11 (13.4%) 2 (15.4%) 1 (25.0%) 0.09 0.3
Outcomes
 Renal replacement therapy (n) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 1 (25.0%) 0.3 < 0.001
 ICU length of stay (day) 3.0 (1.0) 3.0 (2.0) 5.0 (5.0) 4.0 (7.5) < 0.001 < 0.001
  > 7 d (n) 2 (1.8%) 4 (4.9%) 4 (30.8%) 1 (25.0%) 0.02 < 0.001
 Intubation time (h) 13.0 (8.0) 14.0 (9.0) 20.0 (28.5) 28.5 (28.5) 0.03 0.001
  > 5 d (n) 0 (0.0%) 1 (1.2%) 1 (7.7%) 0 (0.0%) 0.1 0.06
 In-hospital mortality (n) 1 (0.9%) 0 (0.0%) 1 (7.7%) 1 (25.0%) 0.5 < 0.001
  1. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, INR International Normalized Ratio, eGFR Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate, LVEF Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction, CPB Cardiopulmonary Bypass, DHCA Deep Hypothermia and Circulatory Arrest, MHCA Median Hypothermia and Circulatory Arrest, CABG Coronary Artery Bypass Graft
  2. NOTE. The categorical variables in the table are presented by the number of cases (with percentage) and the continuous variables are expressed by the median (with interquartile range) or mean (with standard deviation)
  3. *P1 Value: Compare the patients without AKI and all patients with AKI. P1 values* were the results of unpaired t-test or Mann-Whitney U test for continuous variables, and χ2 test or Fisher’s exact test for categorical variables
  4. #P2 Value: Compare patients within four groups (without AKI and patients with stage 1, 2 and 3 AKI). P2 values# were the results of one-way analysis of variance or KruskalWallis test for continuous variables, and χ2 test or Fisher’s exact test for categorical variables