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Table 1 Patient Demographic and Preoperative Characteristics

From: Safety and efficacy of transaxillary transcatheter aortic valve replacement using a current-generation balloon-expandable valve

Variable TF (n = 100) TAx (n = 24) TT (n = 20) p Value p Value between groups
Age, years 80.5 ± 7.6 82.9 ± 8.8 81.3 ± 5.3 0.386  
Male 48 (48) 10 (41.7) 9 (45) 0.846  
Body mass index, kg/m2 28.8 ± 6.2 27.1 ± 6.2 25.8 ± 5.0 0.095  
Body surface area, m2 1.9 ± 0.2 1.8 ± 0.2 1.8 ± 0.3 0.208  
Hypertension 86 (86) 20 (83.3) 20 (100) 0.179  
Diabetes 38 (38) 15 (62.5) 5 (25) 0.029 TF vs TAx, 0.029;
TAx vs TT, 0.012
Coronary artery disease 76 (76) 19 (79.2) 16 (80) 0.895  
Chronic kidney disease 23 (23) 11 (45.8) 9 (45) 0.025 TF vs TAx, 0.024;
TF vs TT, 0.042
End-stage renal disease 2 (2) 1 (4.2) 3 (15) 0.029 TF vs TT, 0.032
Creatininea, mg/dL 1.3 ± 1.1 1.6 ± 0.9 1.6 ± 1.6 0.291  
Chronic lung disease 23 (23) 14 (58.3) 8 (40) 0.002 TF vs TAx, 0.001
Cerebrovascular accident 11 (11) 5 (20.8) 5 (25) 0.171  
Previous cardiac surgery 17 (17) 5 (20.8) 7 (35) 0.186  
Previous CABG 16 (16) 4 (16.7) 7 (35) 0.133  
Previous PCI 19 (19) 11 (45.8) 7 (35) 0.015 TF vs TAx, 0.006
Permanent pacemaker 11 (11) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.073  
Atrial fibrillation 35 (35) 6 (25.0) 5 (25) 0.495  
NYHA III/IV 90 (90) 22 (91.7) 18 (90) 0.969  
STS-PROM 7.3 ± 5.2 11.3 ± 7.6 11.9 ± 11.8 0.005 TF vs TAx, 0.042;
TF vs TT, 0.026
Echocardiographic data
 Aortic valve area, cm2 0.7 ± 0.2 0.8 ± 0.1 0.7 ± 0.2 0.354  
 Peak gradient, mmHg 68.9 ± 23.4 60.6 ± 19.4 66.7 ± 20.4 0.259  
 Mean gradient, mmHg 39.2 ± 13.9 35.5 ± 11.6 39.7 ± 14.0 0.378  
 Peak velocity, m/s 4.1 ± 0.7 3.8 ± 0.6 4.0 ± 0.7 0.229  
 LVEF, % 54.8 ± 11.6 53.0 ± 11.1 49.0 ± 15.4 0.142  
 PASP> 40 mmHg 14 (14) 11 (45.8) 6 (30) 0.002 TF vs TAx, 0.001
  1. a Creatinine level is the most recent value before surgery
  2. Values are mean ± SD or n (%)
  3. CABG coronary artery bypass graft, PCI percutaneous coronary intervention, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, NYHA New York Heart Association classification, PASP pulmonary artery systolic pressure, STS-PROM Society of Thoracic Surgeons predicted risk of mortality score, TAx transaxillary, TF transfemoral, TT transthoracic