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Table 4 Univariate and multivariate analysis of predictors for cervical lymph node metastasis in superficial thoracic ESCC

From: Lymph node metastatic patterns and its clinical significance for thoracic superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

Variables Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
Cervical LN(−)(%) Cervical LN(+) (%) P value HR 95% CI for HR P value
Age    0.086 0.283
  < 65 y 104 (86.7) 16 (13.3)     
  ≥ 65 y 10 (93.5) 7 (6.5)     
Gender    0.911
 Male 180 (89.1) 22 (10.9)     
 Female 25 (96.2) 1 (3.8)     
Tumor location    0.002 0.304 0.130–0.711 0.006
 Upper thorax 26 (76.5) 8 (23.5)     
 Middle thorax 111 (88.8) 14 (11.2)     
 Lower thorax 68 (98.6) 1 (1.4)     
Tumor size    0.888
  ≤ 4 cm 119 (90.2) 13 (9.8)     
  > 4 cm 86 (89.6) 10 (10.4)     
Macroscopic tumor type    0.914
 0-II 136 (90.1) 15 (9.9)     
 0-I/0-III 69 (89.6) 8 (10.4)     
Tumor differentiation    0.128
Well differentiation 53 (91.4) 5 (8.6)     
Moderate differentiation 73 (84.9) 13 (15.1)     
Poor differentiation 79 (94.0) 5 (6.0)     
Growth pattern    0.134
 Expansive 77 (93.9) 5 (6.1)     
 Infiltrative 128 (87.7) 18 (12.3)     
Lymphatic invasion    <  0.001 6.454 2.202–18.919 0.001
Absence 159 (95.8) 7 (4.2)     
Presence 46 (74.2) 16 (25.8)     
Vascular invasion    0.560  
Absence 171 (90.5) 18 (9.5)     
Presence 34 (87.2) 5 (12.8)     
Pathological T category    0.002  
T1a (%)
 M2 27 (100) 0     
 M3 33 (94.3) 2 (5.7)     
T1b (%)
 SM1 54 (94.7) 3 (5.3)     
 SM2 55 (90.2) 6 (9.8)     
 SM3 36 (75.0) 12 (25.0)     
Upper mediastinal LN metastasis    <  0.001 3.196 1.118–9.136 0.03
Absence 171 (95.0) 9 (5.0)     
Presence 34 (70.8) 5 (29.2)     
Mid mediastinal LN metastasis    0.003    
Absence 198 (91.7) 18 (8.3)     
Presence 7 (58.3) 5 (41.7)     
Lower mediastinal LN metastasis    0.011    
Absence 190 (91.8) 17 (8.2)     
Presence 15 (71.4) 6 (28.6)     
Abdominal mediastinal LN metastasis    0.029    
Absence 167 (92.3) 14 (7.7)     
Presence 38 (80.9) 9 (19.1)     
  1. LN lymph node, CI confidence interval, HR hazard ratio, ESCC esophageal squamous cell carcinoma