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Table 3 Multivariable analysis of risk factors for clinical outcomes

From: Risk factor analysis of clinical outcomes of total aortic arch replacement and frozen elephant trunk with aortic balloon occlusion

Risk factors (Hosmer–Lemeshow fitness*) Odds ratio 95% confidence interval P
30-day mortality (0.189)
Heavy smoker 10.898 1.974–60.151 0.006
COPD history 10.198 1.096–94.915 0.041
Emergency operation 63.887 4.828–845.303 0.002
Preoperative leukocyte count (109/L) (1.109) (0.942–1.305) (0.213)
Preoperative percentage of neutrophils (%) 1.123 1.020–1.237 0.018
CPB time (min) 1.010 1.005–1.015  < 0.001
Continuous renal replacement therapy (0.401)
COPD history 7.965 1.079–58.783 0.042
Emergency operation 7.972 1.003–58.709 0.049
Preoperative Scr (μmol/L) 1.011 1.001–1.021 0.028
Preoperative leukocyte count (109/L) 1.191 1.015–1.399 0.032
Preoperative percentage of neutrophils (%) (0.983) (0.920–1.050) (0.614)
Preoperative D-dimer (μg/ml) 1.088 1.007–1.017 0.032
CPB time (min) 1.013 1.008–1.018  < 0.001
Acute kidney injury (0.709)
Weight (kg) 1.046 1.006–1.087 0.023
Height (cm) 0.954 0.916–0.993 0.022
Conventional group 2.493 1.025–6.061 0.044
Concomitant CABG 3.419 1.142–10.233 0.028
Preoperative Scr (μmol/L) 1.049 1.033–1.065  < 0.001
Preoperative hemoglobin (g/L) 1.044 1.010–1.078 0.010
Preoperative platelet count (109/L) 0.922 0.985–0.999 0.032
Postoperative neutrophil count 0† (109/L) 1.200 1.081–1.332 0.001
Postoperative platelet count 0 (109/L) 0.989 0.978–1.000 0.044
Acute hepatic injury (0.953)
Conventional group 2.326 1.230–4.399 0.009
Preoperative AST (U/L) 1.031 1.005–1.057 0.021
CPB time (min) 1.008 1.003–1.014 0.002
Postoperative platelet count 0 (109/L) 0.989 0.983–0.996 0.002
Postoperative leukocyte count 0 (109/L) 1.094 1.019–1.176 0.014
Postoperative percentage of neutrophils 0 (%) 0.886 0.829–0.946  < 0.001
Postoperative Scr (μmol/L) 1.010 1.004–1.015  < 0.001
Temporal paraplegia (0.328)
Total abdominal aorta involvement 10.147 0.755–136.293 0.080
Preoperative Scr (μmol/L) 1.023 0.996–1.052 0.099
Delirium (1.000)
Postoperative mechanical ventilation (h) 1.033 1.010–1.057 0.005
Postoperative FDP (μg/mL) 1.067 1.001–1.136 0.045
Delayed conscious revival (> 12 h) (0.526)
Age (yrs) 1.048 1.019–1.078 0.001
Weight (kg) 1.027 1.005–1.050 0.015
Conventional group 2.521 1.475–4.309 0.001
Female 2.512 1.108–5.695 0.027
Preoperative ALT (U/L) 1.011 1.001–1.022 0.031
Postoperative Scr (μmol/L) 1.007 1.000–1.014 0.043
Prolonged mechanical ventilation (> 72 h) (0.342)
CPB time (min) 1.011 1.006–1.016 0.001
Severe lung infection (0.714)
Heavy smoker 80.126 2.161–2971.041 0.017
COPD history 48.864 1.337–1786.397 0.034
CPB time (min) 1.014 1.005–1.024 0.002
Postoperative Scr (μmol/L) 1.011 1.000–1.023 0.049
Platelet rebound‡ (0.106)
Conventional group 2.046 1.130–3.704 0.018
Postoperative platelet count 0 (109/L) 0.986 0.979–0.992  < 0.001
Postoperative leukocyte count 0 (109/L) 1.121 1.034–1.215 0.006
Postoperative percentage of neutrophils 0 (%) (0.992) (0.928–1.060) (0.809)
RBC transfusion total (U) 0.907 0.836–0.984 0.019
Plasma transfusion total (ml) 0.999 0.999–1.000 0.038
Final re-exam of platelet count time (d) 1.163 1.086–1.244  < 0.001
Sub-acute hepatic injury (0.826)
Female 0.317 0.107 to 0.937 0.038
Postoperative ALT1§ (U/L) 1.008 1.001 to 1.015 0.032
Postoperative AST1 (U/L) 0.996 0.992 to 1.000 0.038
Cost less (< 20,000 USD) (0.804)
Total abdominal aorta involvement 0.250 0.109–0.575 0.001
CPB time (min) 0.978 0.965–0.990 0.001
Cost more (> 30,000 USD) (0.699)
Age (yrs) 1.034 1.001–1.069 0.046
Weight (kg) 1.033 1.006–1.061 0.017
Cardiac surgery history 6.211 1.828–21.103 0.003
Preoperative Scr (μmol/L) 1.011 1.004–1.019 0.004
Preoperative percentage of neutrophils (%) 0.956 0.917–0.996 0.031
Preoperative D-dimer (μg/mL) 1.062 1.004–1.124 0.036
CPB time (min) 1.007 1.003–1.011  < 0.001
  1. ALT Alanine transaminase, AST aspartate transaminase, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, CPB cardiopulmonary bypass, FDP fibrinogen degradation product, RBC red blood cell count, Scrserum creatinine, USD United States dollar, CAD coronary artery disease
  2. *Each multivariable analysis of risk factors can be accepted if the P value of Hosmer–Lemeshow fitness was more than 0.05
  3. All the postoperative blood test 0 stands for the immediate reexamination time point when the operation ended and transferred to ICU
  4. Platelet rebound stands for the last re-examination of platelet count during in hospital stay was higher than the preoperative level
  5. §All the postoperative blood test 1 stands for the reexamination time point of postoperative day 1